Future of Warfare: Small Arms are the Big Challenge

The Future of Warfare: Small Arms are the Big Challenge

Dr. Walter Dorn

Lecture presented at the Symposium on “International Humanitarian Law in the New Millennium,” 
sponsored by the Canadian Red Cross Society and the Faculty of Law of the University of Ottawa, 
Ottawa, 9 February 2000.

I. Introduction

In 1859, an idealistic, young Swiss businessman traveled to Italy to meet with the French Emperor (Napoleon III) only to find himself at the scene of a great battle between the Austrian and French armies. Three-hundred-thousand men confronted each other along a ten-mile front. In the 15-hour battle, forty thousand were killed or wounded on the battlefield. He described the site he saw the next morning:

“Le soleil du 25 éclaira l’un des spectacles les plus affreux qui se puissent présenter à l’imagination. Le champ de bataille est partout couvert de cadavres d’hommes et de chevaux; les routes, les fossés, les ravins, les buissons, les prés sont parsemés de corps morts, et les abords de Solférino en sont littéralement criblés.

“Qu’étaient devenus, comme dans les premiers combats, ou lors de ces entrées triomphales dans les grandes cités de la Lombardie, cet amour de la gloire et cet entraînement si communicatif, augmentés mille fois par les accents mélodieux et fiers des musiques guerrières et par les sons belliqueux des fanfares retentissantes, et ardemment aiguillonnés par le sifflement des balles, le frémissement des bombes et les mugissements métalliques des fusées et des obus qui éclatent et qui se brisent, dans ces heures où l’enthousiasme, la séduction du péril et une excitation violente et inconsciente font perdre de vue la pensée du trépas?

“…. Le sentiment qu’on éprouve de sa grande insuffisance dans des circonstances si extraordinaires et si solennelles, est une indicible souffrance.

English translation:

“When the sun same up on the 25th, it revealed the most dreadful sight imaginable. Bodies of men and horses covered the battlefield; corpses were strewn over roads, ditches, ravines, thickets and fields; the approach to Solférino were literally choked with dead.

“Where now is the love of glory, where the martial ardour, which was a thousand times heightened by the proud and melodious accent of military bands and the warlike tones of resounding trumpets—which were but sharpened by the whistling of bullets, the thunder of bombs, and the metallic roaring of rockets and shells bursting and exploding, in those hours when enthusiasm, when the attraction of danger and fierce, thoughtless excitement, put out of men’s minds all thoughts of their latter end?

“…. The feeling one has of one’s own utter inadequacy in such extraordinary and solemn circumstances is inexpressible. It is, indeed, excessively distressing to realize that you can never do more than help those who are just before you — that you must keep waiting men who are calling out and begging you to come.”

This was Henry Dunant, writing in “Un Souvenir de Solférino” about the experience that motivated him to form the Red Cross.

He eloquently expressed the mixed feelings on the subject of war that still persist in our world today. He speaks of the apparent glory of armies, the excitement of battle, the reality and horror of what man can do to man, and the desperate need to alleviate the suffering.

As a consequence of his book, and his description of the unimaginable suffering after the battle, he helped humanity realize that war is at best a necessary evil and, at worst, it is hell on earth. He also helped point the way of the future.

War is something that should first be prevented, and if not prevented, then controlled and mitigated. Eventually this cruel, barbaric institution should be abolished entirely. We can only hope that someday it will follow in the footsteps of other abhorrent human practices that were more or less successfully banned, like slavery, duelling, public executions, and torture. But for the moment, to minimize war, it must be studied: its development analysed, its methods and tools understood, and its future threat assessed.

What, then, is the future of war in our new century? How will it be waged? Who will be waging it? How can it be better controlled, even banned, and who will do it? At the turn of the century, following the most bloody century in world history, we have a right and a responsibility to examine future war and to seek ways to deal with it.

I will humbly offer some thoughts on the task, overwhelming as it is. Though my “crystal ball” is cloudy, I do want to share evidence that shows that progress is being made, that the future is not bleak–though it is still bloody–and that there are some key areas to focus on. You will see that I feel that we are gradually gaining ground on war. We are, if you like, slowly winning the war on war.

I will first make a few observations about progress in the implements of war, the technologies that are part of modern armies. Too often the war-mongers have made technology their slave, while the vast potential for peacekeeping has been overlooked. As a scientist, I particularly like to point out that technology can serve not only as tool for war but as an instrument for peace.


II. High Technology in Warfare

Dunant, in his “Souvenir de Solférino”, also provides insights into the tools and technologies of war:

“… since new and more terrible methods of destruction are invented daily, with perseverance worthy of a better object, and since the inventors of these instruments of destruction are applauded and encouraged in most of the great European States, which are engaged in an arms race … future battles will only become more and more murderous.”

For an article written in 1862, it was remarkably prescient. Soon the machine gun was introduced as a much more effective killing machine than the black-powder cannon and the infanteers’ bayonet. WWI heralded the eerie arrival of chemical weapons, the tank, and aerial warfare. At the end of that war, called the Great War, US President Woodrow Wilson predicted another world war within 20 years, saying that the weapons the Germans had used in the Great war would be like “toys” compared to those used in the next. Hitler’s V-2 rockets, Panzer tanks and Stuka dive-bombers all showed that to be true.

In the Cold War after World War II, there was steady and immense improvement in the tools possessed by modern armies. We witnessed more than one “revolution in military affairs” or RMA, to use the buzzwords which are currently very popular in military circles to describe what happens when a powerful new technology is integrated into a deadly new strategy. Examples include nuclear deterrence under the strategy of Mutually Assured Destruction (appropriately called MAD) using Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs), precision bombing with guided missiles, etc.. In order to accomplish these RMAs, scientists and engineers became an integral part of the “military-industrial” complex.

The US alone, which led virtually all the RMAs in the past half century, spent about $30 billion dollars annually (in 1998 dollars) during the Cold War on science and technology for military purposes. It even spends more than that now! This, I would like to point out, is more than half of all federal funds devoted to science and technology research, including health research. This is also more than half of what the world as a whole spends on official development assistance to the developing world. The direct relevance of this comparison will become even more clear later in this presentation. It was none other than President Eisenhower who said: “This world in arms is not spending money alone. It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the hopes of its children.” And “every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed.”

The results of this scientific work have been an incredible increase in destructiveness, precision and war-fighting capability for the advanced militaries. These technologies have their severe drawbacks, as we will note, but they have resulted in a significant changes in the “modern” military thinking and capability, especially in the West.

1) Destructiveness. This capacity is most dramatically illustrated with nuclear weapons. In 1945, the two nuclear bombs detonated at 10-20 kilo-tonnes of TNT. Within twenty years, there was a one-thousand fold increase in explosive yield. The Soviet Union, under Khrushchev, detonated a nuclear device of 50 mega-tonnes in the Arctic in the early 1960s. By comparison, the cumulative explosive yield of all bombs in World War II was less than 5 mega-tonnes. The explosive power of non-nuclear arms also increased. In the 1991 Gulf War, the Americans hammered into Iraq more explosive power in one hundred days than it used during all of World War II. This means the militaries have gained “more bang for the buck” or, in the humorous Russian equivalent, “more rubble for the ruble.”

2) The second RMA in advanced modern militaries, especially the US, is precision targeting: the ability to detect a target from long distances, including from outer space, and then deliver the munition with virtually pinpoint accuracy. The Chief of Staff of the US Air Force in 1997 even predicted that: “In the first quarter of the 21st century you will be able to find, fix or track and target “in near real-time” anything of consequence that moves upon or is located on the surface of the earth.” [Source: Air Force in 1997; see statement of General Ronald R. Fogleman, Chief of Staff, US Air Force before House National Security Committee, May 22, 1997]. This may be an overstatement but it does indicate the direction in which technology is moving.

3) Behind the increase in precision, lies an even broader phenomenon: an information revolution. “Smart” weapons are tied into vast information systems with vast databases, interconnected using global military/civilian telecommunications systems. Firing systems of missiles operate far from their intended targets thus ensuring greater safety to the user. The “fire and forget” missiles can be heat seeking, object identifying or precision guided, and some can hug terrain to avoid radars.

In spite of the immense technical progress and “Gee Wiz” value of these technologies and “revolutions”, they are not all that they are cracked up to be. Each technology has limitations that reduce their effectiveness while increasing the danger to the world.

1. Destruction. Stated simply, nuclear weapons, which represent the apex of destructive power, cannot be used by any nation with ethical principles. As they would kill civilians, perhaps millions of them, indiscriminately their use would be contrary to international humanitarian law (IHL) as well as to all codes of morality. Thus, they are not practical. Some see their validity as a deterrent but I reject this. Since no sane person would authorize a nuclear attack, nuclear weapons are at best a bluff that one hopes no one ever calls. The use of nuclear weapons would be suicidal whether against another nuclear power or a non-nuclear one, given that the precedent would be so dangerous for the future of the world, not to mention the problem of radioactive fallout! Similar destruction on grand scale, with or without nuclear weapons, though technically possible, is not politically, legally or morally justifiable.

While the advent of precision targeting reduces the need for more powerful explosive yields, these systems which rely on modern information databases can go terribly wrong, as we witnessed in the bombing of the Chinese embassy in Serbia, the erroneous shooting down of an Iranian airbus (killing 290 civilians) by the US warship Vincennes whose Aegis high tech missile system misidentified the commercial aircraft, or the friendly (at the time) fire by an Iraqi aircraft on the USS Stark, whose defensive systems failed to stop the oncoming missile. All of these examples show that missiles can reach their targets but the information used to determine the targets may be incorrect. Detecting and tracking a target may be easy on open land, the ocean or in the air but it is much more difficult in dense areas, such as cities or jungles. In guerrilla warfare, it becomes almost useless. Witness the need for virtual “carpet bombing” of Grozny in the current Chechnia war. Earlier, in the US operation in Mogadishu, Somalia, only 2 of 60 mortars fired upon in Mogadishu were successfully destroyed. Also, less than half of Iraq’s SCUD missiles were destroyed during the Gulf War, which was the most high-tech international war yet fought (one-sided as it was).

There are also some benefits for peace of technological innovation in these areas, namely the positive applications in peacekeeping (which I, as a scientist, have in recent years been examining): (1). Non-lethal Weapons: A spectrum of non-lethal weapons (e.g., sound, stun, slick’n or stick’ms, blunt munitions) are becoming available which will give peacekeepers a wider range of options to apply force. (2). Precision monitoring: Here the goal is not to target for hostile purposes but for verification and confidence-building. Sensors include passive infra-red with illuminators, permanent (invisible) markers (similar to those used by the UN in East Timor to blot a finger) to mark a thief or transgressor for ease of later identification and apprehension. Tamper-evident seals and trackable tags using GPS can be useful for disarmament and the movement of goods, as in aid convoys. (3) In the third category, the information revolution, there are a range of benefits for early warning and conflict management. The “CNN effect” was pioneered by my co-panelist, General Lewis Mackinzie, to great effect in Bosnia. I saw its reach in East Timor.


III. War in the 21st Century: A Survey

Having reviewed some major RMAs in advanced armies, we have to ask ourselves, will this new technology really matter? As it turns out, to answer the question of future warfare, we have to look more at politics and less at technology. To assess the future of warfare, it is most important to determine WHO will be fighting.

Certainly those who met in the battleground in Solférino (the Austrians and French) won’t be fighting. A Europe moving towards unification has removed any threat of armed conflict. Conflict will be handled politically and legally, not militarily (as seen by the recent European Union reaction to the inclusion of Dr. Haider in the Austrian government). In fact, Germany and France (mortal enemies for so long) no longer even guard their mutual borders, and travellers have a hard time even telling where these borders are as they cross them. Now they have created a virtually borderless market, they are utilizing a common currency, the Euro, and even sending soldiers to a common force, the Eurocorps. From this European experience we can support some generalizations about future war.

In examining potential wars, we can exclude one broad category of war: those fought between democracies. I am a strong believer in the “democratic peace”, the notion that democracies do not fight wars against each other. History has yet to show exceptions to this theory, and the “democratic peace” theory is the closest equivalent that political scientists have to a “physical law.”

For me, the basis of the Democratic Peace, is two-fold: First, democracies tend to respect each other (even when they quarrel) because they respect more the freedom of action of other democracies and their right to choose their leaders and policies, certainly enough not to impose militarily on them. This is analogous to the feelings expressed more sublimely by Gandhi: “I love my liberty so much that I would not want to do anything to limit yours” (paraphrase). Secondly, the democratic nations are becoming increasingly interdependent, with information refusing to be bound by the traditional notions of sovereignty. The world is shrinking in terms the ability of information, people and goods to travel to other lands. Communication with the far reaches of the globe is becoming cheaper, faster and easier. Also new moral and legal norms and standards, including the Geneva Conventions, are being widely known and adopted.

The consequence of the “democratic peace” is fantastic. Freedom House reports that, at the turn of the century, 120 of some 190 nations are democratic, the largest percentage ever. [See: Democracy Momentum Sustain As “Freedom Century” Ends: Freedom House Reports Rands 120 Countries as Democratic, Largest Number Ever”, 21 December 1999, press release available at ]. Three-fifths of the world`s people live under democratically elected governments. However, democracy means more than just elections. A closer look reveals that of these 120 nations, 85 are called free and 59 partially free. Forty-eight are said to be “not free”. The “worst of the worst” tend, not surprisingly, to be countries with internal armed conflict, like Afghanistan, Burma, Iraq, Libya, Somalia and Sudan.

Wilson proclaimed that US entry into the First World War was “to make the world safe for democracy.” It now appears that democracy itself is making the world safe.

We can now consider each of the other categories of war, having excluded wars between democracies. We start with the most catastrophic of all wars, the World Wars.

1. The World Wars

World war, which occurred twice in the twentieth century, is unlikely in the twenty-first century. World war would require the development of two or more powerful geopolitical alliances, with at least one of them being composed of undemocratic states willing and ready to go to war against democratic states. With the death of grand ideologies and grand alliances at the end of the Cold War, I do not foresee the possibility of such a scenario. (However, in making this prediction I want to humbly “knock on wood”, preferably a huge Redwood, because this is not the type of prediction that you would want to be wrong on.) The Marxist-Leninist concept of a “global Communist revolution” has gone the way of the Hitlerian “Liebensraum” and Japanese Imperialist “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere.” As Colin Powell, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff said in 1991: “We have seen our implacable enemy of 40 years vaporize before our eyes” [Testimony Before Senate Armed Services Committee, 27 Sept. 1991, as reported in R. J. Smith, Washington Post, 28 Sept. 1991]. He could not point out any significant enemies: Cuba and North Korea are hardly (forbidding?) threats, as much as some try to make them out to be.

I do see the possibility of the re-emergence of global power politics, though I do not think it will be one of military alliances threatening to attack and invade. Rather, there is a good possibility of a revival of political tensions, with military overtones, with both Russia and China. These two have already sought to forge closer military ties, with most of the external military assistance to China now coming from Russia. As far back as April 1996, Russian President Yeltsin and Chinese leader Jiang Zemin signed a declaration in Beijing to form “a long-term strategic partnership” aimed at counterbalancing US world power. But the odds of a military confrontation leading to armed war are small, though trade wars are likely. The future looks good, however. Russia will slowly become more democratic and China does not display any signs of expansion, desiring to avoid any threats to its impressive economic growth.

The Cold War was a mammoth and artificial struggle that, thankfully, ended in peace and not Armageddon. It’s unlikely to be repeated. Now a much more “natural” series of “hot wars” has replaced it.

2. Major wars between industrialized states

Given that South and Central America have become more democratic with no signs of major reversals, recent events in Venezuela notwithstanding, I do not foresee major war between states in the Americas.

In Western Europe, we have also excluded the possibility, as one would for all countries in the European Union (including Greece and Turkey). In the Balkans, there’s plenty of reason to believe that the centuries-long cycle of war has not ended. It is said that “the Balkans locally produce more global history than they consume locally.” The events in Sarajevo, which attracted the world’s attention in 1914 and still eighty years later, demonstrate the point. The recent bombing of Serbia has created a country, already seeing itself as a persecuted nation, with a desire and need to exact some form of revenge, which it will no doubt do. Sad but true!

In the Middle East, I would like to predict a coming century which will be much better than the last. Israel and its Arab neighbours have fought three major wars. I cannot see this pattern repeating itself, even with the continuing attitude of hostility. Certainly border skirmishes will arise which may result in some small-scale armed clashes, but all out war with Israel is unlikely. Though I mistrust some Middle Eastern leaders, such as Syrian President Assad, I do not think they have the foolhardiness to unilaterally take on Israel head-to-head. There is too much to gain in peace (including the lost territories for Syria and a new Palestinian state to be recognized internationally). So I would like to think that it will see much progress, even with many ups and downs. Iraq is a different story. The Iraqis have a sense of victimization, there is much hatred towards its huge neighbour Iran and there are many resource issues in the region (like water and poverty, debts, etc.). The US bombing of Iraq helped further sow the seeds for future wars.

In Africa, the outlook is the worst of all the continents for international (as well as internal) war. Even now, more than one third of the nations in Africa are involved in wars, either directly with soldiers fighting or indirectly through provision of supplies. The war in the Congo is by no means finished. The war between Ethiopia and Eritrea, fought in the World War I style of trench warfare, is a sad case that need never have begun. Now that the flames of war have engulfed these two nations, it will take much international effort (including a large international peacekeeping force) to let the passions settle. Africa needs the help of the West more than ever. Now is not the time to hide behind the attitude of “African solutions to African problems”, which in reality means “leaving Africa alone to cope with her problems.” It`s time now, after centuries of neglect, to provide Africa with the resources and means to gradually lift itself from poverty and strife. There are many encouraging signs: democracy taking seed and spreading in Southern Africa, with a peaceful transition in South Africa and growing democracy in Botswana, Mozambique, and hopefully Zimbabwe (Namibia may be slipping, though.).

In Asia, there are several realistic scenarios for international war. The Taiwan-China question has yet to be settled. While I doubt China will attack the island, naval confrontations leading to declared but controlled wars are possible. The conflict over the disputed Spratly Islands, which are claimed by several nations could prove dangerous, particularly if significantly larger oil deposits are discovered. There are ongoing border disputes between Thailand and its neighbours (especially Cambodia). Vietnam possesses a significant army, with a history of aggression. War between India and Pakistan is perhaps the most probable and the most dangerous, given that both nations possess nuclear weapons. In a moment of hot-headedness, these nations could even resort to these ultimate weapons. Recently, Indian Prime Minister Atal Vajpayee said “if anyone uses [nuclear weapons] against us, we will not wait for our annihilation.” It would be wise for the international community to devote considerable attention to building peace between these two “sisterly” states, born as twins of a common mother, British India.

It would be impossible in a paper of this scope to list all the possible sources of tension and potential flashpoints in Asia or any other region. Rather, the summary shows that international wars should be on the wane, with only a few to be predicted. As compared to some 200 international wars in this century, I believe that major wars between industrialized states will be relatively infrequent in the twenty-first century. Rather there are bound to be plenty of border skirmishes and the on-going threat of internal and civil wars. Instead of a third World War, I see internal wars in the third world.

3. Internal and Civil Wars

Much has been written about the movement from international to internal wars. There are also a variety of means and indicators to predict future wars, including “minorities at risk”, societal disequilibrium, unsettled grievances, widespread arms, etc. Rather than review this conventional wisdom that internal wars have replaced international wars, I will simply accept it!

4. International enforcement (police) actions

Another threat to the peace, much less discussed, is actually the misuse of the means designed to keep the peace, i.e., enforcement actions. There is a tendency in our superpower neighbour who is leading the charge in enforcement operations and has, for better or worse, become the world`s lead policeman, to resort to the early use of force, like the sheriff in the wild west. There is, unfortunately, no court to penalize the “police brutality” on the world stage. The aggressive instinct is more subtle today than in the past, but it is nevertheless still present. Whether it be the evil Red Russians of 20 years ago, the “Redskins” of 200 years ago, or the pseudo Reds (like Milosevich), there is a tendency for the US to use force in the form of weapons and threats against those elevated to the status of enemy. According to some conservatives, Red China is the next enemy to hate and, even more unfortunate, to threaten.

In my opinion, the US is not exercising “imperial power” but its unilateralism borders on pseudo-imperialism. Under the guise of international enforcement action, aggression and other atrocities have been committed, most recently in the former Yugoslavia. The difference between true enforcement and aggression is not only who you target and what authorization you get, but in the degree of damage inflicted. While war necessitates surrender no matter what the cost to the victim, law calls for proportionality of force. This is the dilemma which the international community faces time and again as the US uses “all necessary means” to accomplish its military aim.

Another danger is the use of the concept of peacekeeping as a cover for intervention. Thirty thousand Russian soldiers are stationed in Georgia, Moldova and Tadjikistan since 1990 under the guise of peacekeeping. This is a dangerous practice, which has spread to other regions of the world, as we see with the Nigerians in West Africa.

It is my belief that a major obstacle to world peace is the undemocratic and unequal status given to the major powers in the Security Council, especially in the form of the unrestricted veto. With the creation of the UN after the second World War, the world witnessed the use of the Russian veto over 120 times before the first US veto was cast. It was common to talk about the paralysis of the UN by the veto and the US was looking sincerely for a means to avoid or change the practice that was so often used by the Soviets. It is in times of peace, such as today, that we should modify the rules for using the veto, before it is again subjected to continuous abuse.

Since wars have become and will remain mostly internal, we can expect that they will not be waged between battle groups or armoured divisions, but with one side at least being guerrilla forces using small arms. The guerrillas will fight from mountain or jungle bases, staging “hit and run” attacks before seeking cover. Ethnic warfare may also be fought in cities “block by block” as was the case in Grosny and Mogadishu. The worst part of this picture is that these types of wars take a long time to end, and usually they do not end cleanly. In addition, the parties will use crime as a means of revenue. In Africa especially, crime and war will be mutually reinforcing. Thus, the major threat to human beings in the twenty-first century will not be ICBMs rocketing through the outer atmosphere across oceans, but streams of AK-47 bullets in gang war fought across streets within states.


IV. Small Arms are the Big Threat

Thus, I am led to the conclusion that at the beginning of a new century, small arms pose the greatest man-made threat in practice to human security in our world. Nuclear weapons may have the capacity to annihilate populations (and are therefore called the ultimate evil), but they are not used daily to take hundreds of lives in communities in virtually every country, as is the case with small arms. The fact remains that most killings in our world are carried out with small arms, those weapons that can be carried and used by a single person.

Small arms are the preferred tools of violence in most internal wars, coups, militia and gang violence, government oppression and human rights abuses, as well as for domestic and transnational crime. Even in international wars they play a major role, and in some cases a predominant one. Though not categorised as weapons of mass destruction, today they are truly the premier instruments of mass murder.

Even long after an armed conflict is over, these weapons continue to exact their toll on vulnerable populations. The ICRC estimates even a year and a half after the formal end of conflict, the weapons-related casualties remain at 60-80 percent of the rate during the conflict [Herby in Boutwell, p.199]. Unless strong disarmament measures are instituted as part of a peace agreement, the weapons remain available to promote criminal, communal and family violence.

In cultures of violence and gun-ownership, often created initially by armed conflicts but remaining ingrained long afterwards, these instruments become a symbol of power and pride (and even the subject of affection!). In times of tension, such an unnatural status promotes an increase in boasting, intimidation, threats of violence and the inevitable demonstrations of force. Finally, the result is all too often widening lethality as the spiral of retribution and revenge is reinforced and fuelled, leading to social disintegration.

The statistics are alarming. Small arms have caused more than 3 million deaths in the past decade, with the vast majority of victims being civilians, 8 out of 10 being women and children, according to UNICEF. [“The UN takes aim at small arms”, UNICEF Press Release CF/DOC/PR/1999/26 of 20 July 1999.] It is estimated that there are 500 million arms in the world, an average of one for every 12 inhabitants [This statistic, estimated by Singh [Singh, Jasjit, “Introduction”, in Sigh, p. ix] is very rough and may be in error by one hundred million or more, a further indication on the lack of monitoring and control of these weapons].

Arms producers, brokers and dealers (sometimes called the “merchants of death”) continually look to new markets in search of increased profits, thereby helping to proliferate both arms and conflict. The result is that weapons end up where they are the least controlled and do the most damage.

Clearly there is a need to combat this menace to human security. The widespread distribution of small arms in the world leads to a horrendous global tragedy that every national and international authority has a responsibility to help mitigate. The human tragedy of small arms alone provides compelling reason to motivate the international community to participate in efforts to solve, or at least mitigate the global arms threat.

In some of the poorest countries of the world, there is easy access to inexpensive firearms. In Uganda, an AK-47 could be purchased for the cost of a chicken. [Belgian Administration for Development Cooperation, “Sustainable Disarmament for Sustainable Development,” 1999, 59.] Before the genocide in Rwanda, a grenade could be obtained for two beers.

The value of arms deliveries nearly doubled to Sub-Saharan Africa in 1998 though it remained steady in East Asia and Australasia [International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) as quoted in the Globe and Mail, October 27, 1999.]

A strong International Code of Conduct on Arms Transfers is needed, such as the one proposed by a group of Nobel Peace Laureates led by former Costa Rican President Oscar Arias. Recipient countries must accept democracy (defined in terms of free and fair elections), the rule of law, civilian control over military forces, and abide by the accepted conventions on torture, civil rights and international aggression. Another provision requires that the military spending of recipient governments must not exceed the combined budget on health and education. In addition, states must report their arms purchases to the United Nations.


V. Conclusion

Henry Dunant, feeling his “own utter inadequacy” in the face of a screaming need to ameliorate the condition of the wounded in the field, was moved to suggest that new societies be organized in times of peace to prevent the reoccurring disaster of unattended wounded. His plea led directly to the formation of the Red Cross, the first Geneva Convention of 1864 and, indirectly, to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and the Additional Protocols of 1977 over a century after the battle of Solferino.

Today we face similar distress as Dunant felt in 1859, with “so much to do and so little means to do it” in our goal of continuing to reduce the barbarity of warfare and to eventually abolish the institution altogether, whether it be between or within nations. But we can take heart from the progressive and ongoing work of the Red Cross. The 1980 Excessively Injurious Weapons Convention, championed by the Red Cross, expanded on earlier agreements to ban so-called dum-dum bullets, as did the Protocol to ban laser blinding weapons. The 1987 Ottawa Convention on Antipersonnel Mines, which was urged and backed by the Red Cross movement and many other members of our global civil society, was another step along the road of sanity and morality. The next step, in my mind, is to develop new mechanisms to limit the proliferation and use of small arms.

With a world in which wars are increasingly internal, international humanitarian law (IHL) is now more difficult, but as important as ever. The two major challenges in my mind are (1) finding the means to “bind” non-state parties (i.e., to gain their acceptance and find the means to support their compliance) and (2) measures to reduce the presence of the most common killers – small arms. Fortunately, we have important organizations, such as the Red Cross to help in both areas.

The Red Cross has played a vital seminal role in the past not only in the development of new international humanitarian law (IHL) but also in its dissemination and implementation. With this in mind, it is a pleasure to participate in this Symposium on “IHL in the New Millennium.” It seems to me that the Red Cross is needed as much as ever in this new millennium, and the age-old motto is as applicable as ever: “Above all—humanity.”


Chemical Weapons Convention Overview

The Chemical Weapons Convention

Presenter – Walter Dorn

Excerpt from “Arms Control in the 1990s: Proceedings of a Workshop on Chemical Weapons, Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control in Outer Space,” Peter Brogden (ed.), Aurora Papers 22, Canadian Centre for Global Security, Ottawa, 1994. The workshop was held at Oakham House, Ryerson Polytechnic University on 29 May 1993. (The presentation was accompanied by slides.)



I am going to outline the story of chemical weapons (CW) and their control—the story of a modern problem and the development of a modern solution. I will also relate some of my personal experiences as a witness to and at times participant in the development of the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). The Convention, which provides for a comprehensive ban on chemical weapons, was finally opened for signature less than a half-year ago, after almost a quarter century of negotiations.

The story of chemical weapons in modern times, however, begins in a rather gruesome way with World War I. CW were unleashed on soldiers on the Western Front by the German Army at Ypres on April 22, 1915. Canadian soldiers were among the first of over a million casualties from CW in that war.

During a CW or “gas” attack, a soldier in the trenches might see an ominous cloud moving towards him, sometimes bringing a sweet smell, sometimes colourless and odourless, depending on the type of gas. Upon contact, his eyes might start burning, blisters may form on the skin, followed by nausea, vomiting, pulmonary damage and, quite possibly, death. Eighty percent of the gas fatalities in World War I were due to phosgene, a chemical which attacks the lungs. Other chemicals used include mustard gas, hydrogen cyanide and chlorine gas. The original methods of delivery were crude, for instance, simple release from the top of a gas canister with the wind acting as the carrier to the enemy (as long as it didn’t change direction!). Piping was soon used to carry the gas for release in no man’s land between the opposing trenches. Huge quantities of chemical agents were brought to the front in train/tanker loads. By the end of the war, hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical agents had been produced and released into the atmosphere. Apparently, the military planners at that time had no respect for environmental preservation!

The experience of chemical warfare made such an impression upon the citizens of all nations that after the war there was an outcry to prohibit that means of warfare. A Conference for the International Supervision of the International Trade in Arms and Ammunition and in the Implements of War was called by the League of Nations, itself an institution created out of the horror of the World War I. The Conference was held in 1925 in Geneva, the site of the headquarters of the League. While the diplomats did not come to an agreement on the supervision of the arms trade (a problem which remains unsolved to this day), they did agree with relative ease to an agreement to ban the use in war of CW. The Geneva Protocol was signed in June 1925 and today it remains one of the pillars of arms control, though it is now largely superseded by the Chemical Weapons Convention.

The original copy of the 1925 Geneva Protocol was displayed by the French government (the Protocol’s depositary) at the January 1993 signing ceremony of the CWC in Paris. The Protocol is a simple document with only a few substantive sentences, declaring as it does that the use in war of poisonous gases and similar weapons “has been justly condemned by the general opinion of the civilized world” and expressly prohibiting it and extending this prohibition to bacteriological (biological) weapons. The Protocol is only one page in length and it contains no verification provisions. By contrast, the CWC is one hundred and seventy-two pages long and most of it details an elaborate verification system. I think that this is a measure of solid progress in our implementation of international law.

Even though most nations had signed and ratified the Geneva Protocol by the mid-1930s1  many nations maintained chemical warfare preparedness programs and even stockpiled chemical agents. This included Germany and states who became the World War II Allies. Biological weapons were also being developed. In Canada, a large project during World War II was led by Frederick Banting, of Banting and Best fame.

In the pictures I am showing, we see German soldiers preparing CW delivery vehicles and German military academies holding training sessions to practice how to wash up streets after a CW attack. Many posters appeared on the streets of London in 1939 warning the British population to acquire and learn how to use gas masks. During the 1991 Gulf War similar warnings could be seen in Israel.

Chemical warfare did not take place in World War II. There are still debates about the reasons why but I think that it is fair to say that the Geneva Protocol, as an expression of universal revulsion against chemical warfare was a factor, if not the dominant factor. I could also mention that Adolf Hitler was blinded for over a month near the end of World War I, due to the effects of CW. He wrote in his book “Mein Kampf” that it was during that period of intense suffering and darkness that he “discovered his destiny”. Perhaps, he realised that CW was far from a decisive military factor in battle, as had proved to be the case in World War I. Soldiers of all periods abhorred CW, even the Romans had said that chemicals were to be used for killing rodents and not for fighting wars.

Still, during the interwar period much research was being done on CW, in a kind of arms race. Like the recent race in nuclear weapons, no one relished the thought of using such weapons but both sides felt obliged to develop them. It was in this pre-War period that German researchers discovered a new type of CW, the so-called nerve agents. These were two orders of magnitude more effective (in deadly dose) than the previous agents. The Japanese also sponsored a significant CW program, which included testing various new agents on human subjects, particularly Chinese prisoners, in an episode that Japan would like to forget.

After World War II, CW research and development became part of the arms race between the Soviet Union and the United States. While Germany was now prohibited from acquiring chemical and nuclear weapons, the superpower arms race had a significant chemical (and, of course, nuclear) dimension. We can note the following military and other negative developments:

  • Artillery and rocket-propelled grenades filled with CW.
  • Missiles with CW warheads.
  • During the Korean War, China and North Korea accused the US/UN forces of using CW. However, the accusers were unwilling to allow objective international inspections to verify the truth or falsity of the accusations.
  • During the Vietnam War, the US used herbicides (Agent Orange, for example) on a wide scale and was condemned by many for this. There were efforts to reach a ban of CW in the Geneva negotiations at the end of that war but these failed due to unsolved problems of verification.
  • Iraq used CW against Iran many times during the first Gulf War (1980-88) in violation of its Geneva Protocol commitments (Iraq had ratified the Protocol in 1931). This CW use by Iraq was independently verified by the UN Secretary-General. Iraqi President Saddam Hussein also used CW against the Kurdish people in his country, the best documented incident having occurred in March 1987 at Halabja, where virtually the entire citizenry was poisoned.
  • In the mid-1980s during the peak of Cold War paranoia, the Soviet Union was accused of having stockpiled over 300,000 tons of CW agents. 2
  • US began production of binary CW warheads. 3 This technology poses severe problems for CW verification, since the precursors themselves may be harmless and thus can be stored and hidden more easily, without the protective casing and precautions normally required for CW.
  • Iraq, Libya and several other countries built CW production facilities with the aid of over-zealous exporters in the West.


On the positive side, events which contributed to arms control include:

  • Formation of the United Nations in 1945 with a mandate to negotiate disarmament and a stronger will to achieve collective security than the League of Nations was ever able to demonstrate.
  • Cessation of atmospheric nuclear tests in the 1963 Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) and the acceptance of limited verification measures (i.e., non-intrusive national technical means (NTM) of observation such as satellite surveillance).
  • A United Nations study on chemical and biological weapons was completed in 1969, which provided a concise summary of the characteristics and dangers of these weapons. 4
  • The Conference on Disarmament (CD), the name we currently use for the Geneva-based multilateral disarmament negotiating forum, began formal discussions on CW control in 1968.
  • The Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWTC) of 1972, negotiated in the CD, banned possession of biological weapons (BW) and despite its lack of verification provisions, did have a restraining influence on states.
  • A rudimentary verification system for the Geneva Protocol was created by the UN General Assembly in a series of resolutions beginning in 1982. The Assembly requested the Secretary-General to investigate alleged violations of the Protocol.
  • The so-called Australia Group was created in 1984 with a mandate to coordinate export controls among “Western” nations for CW precursors,5  to make CW production more difficult.
  • The 1991 Paris conference on CW with some 150 nations participating, mostly at the Foreign Minister level, gave a much needed impetus to the CD negotiations in Geneva. The Soviet Union promised unilaterally to start destroying its CW stockpile.
  • The 1989 Government-Industry Conference Against CW was held in Canberra to increase cooperation between the world’s governments and chemical industries in developing an effective yet tolerable control regime for CW.
  • Finland and a few other countries began research programs on CW detection for arms control purposes.
  • Involvement by many NGOs (Pugwash, SfP, VOW) in pressing governments for action.


Progress at the CD

On September 3rd 1992, the “rolling text” of the CWC, which had been “rolling along” in the CD for nearly a decade, was finalized and sent to the UN General Assembly for approval. The General Assembly requested the UN Secretary-General to open it for signature on January 13th 1993. During the Paris signing ceremony, January 13-15, 130 states signed.

The CWC is a comprehensive disarmament treaty. It bans the development, production, stockpiling, transfer and use of CW and provides for the destruction of existing stockpiles. It also incorporates provisions for the most advanced and intrusive international verification system ever. This system provides a model for agreements in other areas of international law, including human rights and environmental treaties.

The treaty defines CW as toxic chemicals and delivery systems which can cause death or harm to humans and animals, except where intended for purposes not prohibited by the convention. Thus chemicals designed to destroy plants fall outside the domain of the Convention, unless they harm animals or humans as well. The definition further states all such toxic chemicals are included, regardless of their origin. Thus toxins, which are poisons produced by bacteria and fungi, are covered by the Convention.

In the early 1980s, the US alleged that toxins were used in South East Asia by communist forces. However, the Secretary General’s teams were unable to verify that toxins were used and an alternative hypothesis was put forward by Professor Meselson of Harvard University. He suggested that the toxins that were falling from the sky were actually bee feces.


Q – Doug Scott:

Could you tell us a little bit more about what makes a toxin a toxin?


R – Dorn:

Toxins are chemical agents which are produced by biological organisms, by living systems. Bacteria and fungi may produce toxins. These toxins can be very deadly, because nature has had millennia to develop these agents to protect the biological organisms which produce them. Toxins can be very lethal to human beings and to other organisms.


Q – Doug Scott:

A non-toxin chemical weapon, what would that be?


R – Dorn:

That would be an agent which is not produced by a biological system. It is something which is produced through chemical reactions in chemical laboratories or factories. Examples of deadly chemical weapons include VX, mustard gas and chlorine which can be produced from standard laboratory chemicals. It is possible to produce toxins in the laboratory but they are not simple reactions like other chemicals. It is much easier to produce them using living organisms like bacteria and fungi.


Q – Doug Scott:

I am just wondering why toxins have to be dealt with separately. I mean why not regard them as just another CW agent?


R – Dorn:

They are in the Convention and they are treated as CW. Two of them are explicitly mentioned, Ricin and Saxitoxin, which are listed under Schedule 2. One of the reasons why toxins are often considered differently from other toxic chemicals is that they were also included in the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention so there is already a prohibition on the development, production, and use of toxins. Thus they can be considered separately in terms of arms control in some instances.


Canadian Contributions to the CWC

First, it was under Canadian chairmanship that the CD first achieved a mandate for formal negotiations on the CWC in 1983. Second in my mind, was the role Canada played in helping the Bush administration move away from an absurd position that it took in August 1991. Despite the fact that in 1984, then Vice-President George Bush had proposed to the CD a very intrusive inspection regime of “anytime, anywhere” inspections, the US subsequently rejected this kind of transparency when the prospects for a CWC became realistic. In 1984, one could be reasonably certain that the Soviets would reject proposals for that degree of transparency. When the Soviets accepted, it became apparent that the American military was not willing. Well, Canada protested and the US did shift back. In the end, a system of “managed access” was incorporated into the Convention, with inspections permitted at any site within a signatory state but not necessarily within every location at a site.

Canada has also been publishing compilations of the proceedings of the CD meetings. This has proven helpful to both the negotiators and those, like me, researching the topic. Canada also published various papers on chemical weapons control, including a handbook for the investigation of alleged use of CW. This handbook is indeed very handy, it lists a great many chemical agents, their properties, the toxicology, the cautions, the first aid and the therapies. It was a product of the verification research program in the [Canadian] Department of External Affairs. Also under that program, a trichothecene mycotoxin sensors kit was developed for detection of toxins, based on an ELISA technique. One negative Canadian activity was that CW testing had been done at Suffield on human subjects – albeit volunteers. The Canadian newspapers got hold of this and to deal with the problem, the Minister of National Defence requested an investigation by William Barton, a former Canadian Ambassador to the United Nations. The resulting Barton Report recommended that a committee be set up to review, on an on-going basis, the recommendations of the report and the status of research in Canada. Clive Holloway has been serving on the committee, known as the Biological and Chemical Defence Review Committee (BCDRC), for the last three or four years and has just become its Chair. A group of us from Science for Peace will be making a presentation about our concerns to that committee on Monday, June 1st.

Industry has been very keen to portray themselves as the advocates of goodness, seeing as they have enough of an image problem with environmental pollution. Their role has been quite constructive in re cent years. In the mid to late ’80s there were worries among arms controllers that industry insistence on business confidentiality would hold up negotiations, but chemical industries world-wide, as represented by the various regional consortia, have made an effort to allay such fears. There is currently an International Centre for Support of the Chemical Weapons Convention which will hopefully become a means for industry to assist in the development of this new CW inspection regime.


The Role of NGOs

In discussing the NGO contribution to CW control, some auto-biographical material may slip in here because I became indirectly and also directly involved in the negotiations and the signature and ratification process of the treaty. I might also add that the late George Ignatieff, a former president of Science for Peace, who has served as Ambassador to the CD as well as Ambassador to the UN, was one of the negotiators of the Biological Weapons Convention. He said at our 1989 Workshop on the Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons that after the use of CW in Vietnam many diplomats thought there was an opportunity to ban both chemical and biological weapons but the United States resisted, using the argument that there was no effective way to verify a CW ban. In 1972, with the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, only biological weapons were banned, which were harder to verify but deemed less militarily threatening. Unfortunately George Ignatieff passed away before he could see the completion of CWC negotiations in which he had participated at an early stage in the CD.

As an example of what NGOs can do, I would like to relate how an important and novel compliance provision was first proposed and subsequently came to be included in the rolling text of the CWC in 1990. For several years, the Markland Policy Group, which is an NGO created by SfP member Doug Scott, has been studying means of promoting compliance with arms control treaties and the anticipated CWC in particular. One means which had not been employed in arms control treaties was what we called “domestic treaty legislation”. We published this idea in various workshop proceedings and in 1989, in the book “Disarmament’s Missing Dimension”. 6

We recommended that, on ratification of the convention (and other arms control treaties) each state’s parliament be required to enact penal legislation binding on all persons including all government and military personnel. Our book was the first time that this idea had been proposed for arms control. We saw it as a means to help enforce the treaty by using the enforcement powers of domestic law. Copies of the 1989 conference proceedings and the 1990 book were sent to selected members of the CD and in late 1990 the rolling text stipulated that signatory states must pass such domestic legislation binding on all persons.

I know that some of you have asked about my recent activities relating to arms control and the CWC, so I will give a brief outline. I have been pleased to participate meetings of the Markland Policy Group since 1986, when we started examining the draft texts of the CWC and studying arms control compliance systems in general. I was also keen, as UN Representative of Science for Peace, to promote the establishment of a UN satellite monitoring system and a UN verification agency. In 1988, Professor Derek Paul and I presented some of these proposals in speeches to the General Assembly’s Special Session on Disarmament. Although such agencies have not been established yet (we’re still working on that), verification of disarmament has become a primary activity of the UN. A particular case in point is the verification of disarmament of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons systems in Iraq. We see objective verification of disarmament as being a natural role for the UN, second only to its role in promoting treaty negotiations.

In April of last year, I accepted a job at Parliamentarians for Global Action (PGA), which is an organization of about 700 Members of Parliament from over 65 countries, based in New York. PGA had received a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to start a new programme in arms control verification and I was invited to coordinate and put flesh to the proposed programme. Just after I had agreed over the phone, it was suggested that I travel immediately to The Hague to attend a symposium on the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). At the time, before the treaty was completed, there was a competition between Vienna, Geneva and The Hague to be the home of the headquarters of the new organization. The Dutch were very eager to achieve the goal and the conference was held in their most important hall, the Ridderzaal. It was there that I had the opportunity to meet the chief negotiators of the Convention and to begin to think about the parliamentary role in the implementation of the Convention. Once back in New York, I was fortunate to find two very capable individuals to help me set up a parliamentary network on arms control verification. When the CWC was becoming a reality, we began organizing a Parliamentary Symposium on the Convention in Paris, to run in parallel with the signing ceremony of the treaty. The UN Secretary-General opened the treaty for signature on January 13th 1993 and 130 nations signed it over the next three days. In Paris, we developed a parliamentary declaration in support of the Convention and a statement on the role of parliamentarians in the implementation of the treaty. 7

At the conclusion of the Paris signing ceremony, I had a very pleasant experience. The director of the treaty section of the UN, who was very helpful in getting us our places at the signing ceremony, said to me at the end of the ceremony, “Oh! Mr. Dorn, I am in big trouble, I cannot carry the Convention down to the taxi. It’s too heavy.” So I had the honour of carrying the Convention document out to the taxi on January 15th, at the beginning of its journey to New York. It was about a foot thick with all six languages included and the special paper used for the signatures. There were one hundred and thirty signatories in Paris and there have been over a dozen signatories since then.

Following the ceremony in Paris I made a tour of selected European capitals, speaking at parliaments about the ratification of the Convention and some of the other key implementation issues. Somehow, it was usually members of the opposition parties who sponsored my talks, although the organization (PGA) is bi-partisan and the parliamentarians in attendance were from various political parties. Some of the key issues we discussed were where to house the National Authority8  and how to make sure that the departments of industry and trade fully promoted any export restrictions.

While in Vienna, I delivered a paper on my other favorite area: developing UN fact-finding expertise for early warning and preventive diplomacy. I also visited the International Atomic Agency (IAEA) to discuss the possibilities of an article comparing the OPCW to the IAEA. 9

My experience at PGA came full circle when I re turned to The Hague for the first meeting of the Preparatory Commission. The PrepComm was set up in Paris to oversee preparations for the implementation of the Convention. One of its tasks was to consider the domestic implementation and penal legislation provisions of the Convention. Now the Markland Group is busy providing input to the PrepComm and I was pleased to hear that an Index to the Convention that I had prepared was being circulated and used in PrepComm committees.10  The Hague, having won the seat of the future OPCW, is now building a Peace Tower in which the Organization will reside. This will complement the Peace Palace which houses the International Court of Justice.


The Terms of the Convention

The first article of the convention says that you cannot develop, produce or stockpile CW and calls for the destruction of current stockpiles and prohibits the transfer of CW. The new agency (the OPCW) that is being formed has three main bodies, the Conference of States Parties, the Executive Council and the Technical Secretariat. Figure 1 shows the structure and Appendices A and B give more details.


One of the most important features of the CWC is the compliance system, which includes measures for data collection through on-site inspection, data evaluation by officials in the Technical Secretariat and consultation with the Inspected State Party and other signatories. Finally, there is some allusion to a response to non-compliance: referral to the Security Council. None of the previous arms control treaties had such elaborate provisions for verification and compliance. The Geneva Protocol had none of these, although in the 1980s the UN General Assembly gave the Secretary-General the mandate to investigate the use of CW, which is an unsystematic means of verification of the Protocol. Under the bilateral arms control treaties there were some methods for data collection, namely NTM, but there were no means for independent analysis of the data outside of the interested parties. The bilateral treaties have consultative mechanisms, like the Standing Consultative Commission (SCC) of the SALT treaties, but again, this only involved the two parties. Finally, the bilateral treaties have little in the way of a response mechanism.

Under the CWC we have data collection by an international agency and we have evaluation of the data by the international agency, the OPCW. There still remains some question as to whether the OPCW can pass judgment if non-compliance has or has not occurred. The US does not support this view although a reading of the text would tend to show that the OPCW does have this authority. In fact, it will be experience that determines how this delicate question is handled. The response mechanism is very weak. The treaty says that the delinquent party can loose its vote and that unspecified collective measures can be taken. The word sanctions appears once in the CWC, in the title of Chapter XII, but it does not actually appear in the text of that chapter nor anywhere else in the Convention.

Now that the treaty to ban CW has been signed and is probably to enter into force in 1995, hopefully, we have a happy ending to a rather sad story. The last chapter of this story has yet to be written but by providing for public education and discussion on this topic, perhaps we are helping to produce an excellent final chapter.


Structure of the Organization

Figure 1: Structure of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (Based on Fig. 2 of “Disarmament’s Missing Dimension: A UN Agency to Administer Multilateral Treaties”, Science for Peace/Samuel Stevens, Toronto, 1990. Reproduced with permission.)


Questions and Responses

Q – Richard Kapp:

How many states have not yet signed the treaty?

R -Dorn:

Approximately forty states, though some of those are the very small states. There are one hundred and eighty two members of the United Nations and about a hundred and forty two signatories to the Convention. The important thing is to see who has not signed the Convention, who has CW and who may be possible violators of the spirit of the Convention. One might list Libya, North Korea, Vietnam, Syria. Egypt also is thought to possess CW. The Arab states wanted to go as a block to Paris saying that none of them were prepared to sign the Convention unless Israel makes some moves towards nuclear disarmament and nuclear arms control. It turned out that some Arab states broke ranks and about five of them signed the CWC in Paris and another four or five have signed since then, in New York. I don’t believe that Egypt will hang back for too long. Syria and Libya are more important questions. Iraq has not signed though many of us thought that it would be very wise for Iraq to sign because the verification provisions of the CWC are much more lenient than those currently in place under the Security Council resolutions.

I might just add to that, we are talking now only about nations which have signed the Convention. The Convention does not come into operation until sixty-five countries have actually ratified it through their national parliaments and not earlier than two years after the signature, in January of 1995. Only a half dozen states have ratified the treaty to the present date. Most experts do not see a problem in getting the required number of ratifications, though there may be important hold-outs.

Q – Trudy Dorn:

When one country introduced chemical weapons in the First World War, did the others follow?


R – Richard Kapp:

When one country introduces these weapons, usually the other country is able to use its own industrial base to produce its own comparable chemical weapons to retaliate. While the Germans introduced it, the allies were able to respond.


R – Walter Dorn:

I saw the figures for World War I. The Germans produced roughly a hundred and fifty thousand tons, France and Britain were about fifty thousand tons each. So if you look to the totals, you would see that all the Allies together probably produced as much as Germany did.


Q – Dominick Jenkins:

You talk about the “final chapter” and that is something I have an immense problem with. Because it seems to me that is a story about men getting wiser and then we come to the end of this story. I just do not believe it and I think that it is a mistake to write the story that way. It seems to me that if you look at the actual history of CW in the United States you find that it is not a history of science being corrupted and then returning to its true course, when science dissociates itself from these weapons. It is not a story with a nice beginning and an end which ties everything up neatly. Instead, it is a history in which scientists were not corrupted by but actually advocated the adoption of CW and continued to do so after the First World War. That is very important, it is very important for Science for Peace, because in terms of getting a high level of scientific concern about this issue you need to say that there is a fundamental responsibility that comes from scientists actively deciding to develop CW. That is going to be very important for the future, there is no final chapter, it is not a story of us getting wiser.


R – Walter Dorn:

Of course, when I say final chapter, it is allegorical. But I like to think that we did write a final chapter to slavery. Even though there may be remnants of slavery in some parts of the world, you could easily talk about the abolition of slavery in most of the world. I would say that we are now in the second to final chapter, describing our current efforts to implement a global ban on CW, though the CWC. The final chapter would then review how successful we had been in coming decades and centuries. I would like to think that in comparison with the volumes you can write about CW in the two world wars, the likelihood of large or small scale use of CW will be very much smaller in the future because of the CWC.



A -Background to the CWC

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is the most elaborate and complex multilateral disarmament treaty ever signed. The CWC supplements the existing treaty known as the Geneva Protocol of 1925, which bans only the use in war of chemical weapons. The new Convention:

1. requires the destruction of all existing stockpiles of chemical weapons,
2. bans the production and transfer of chemical weapons,
3. imposes restraints on the production and transfer of dual-use chemical substances that are capable of being used for chemical weapons.

The treaty has now been signed by over 140 states since it was opened for signature on January 13, 1993. However, it will not enter into force until it is ratified by 65 nations and in any case, not before January 13, 1995.


The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)

The CWC will be administered by an international body to be known as the OPCW. This body is to consist of three organs:

  • The Conference of the States Parties
  • The Executive Council
  • The Technical Secretariat


The Conference of the States Parties (CSP)

This body is to be the “principal organ of the Organization” and all States Parties will have one representative in the CSP. It will make decisions by two thirds majority on matters of substance and simple majority on procedural matters.


The Executive Council of the OPCW (EC)

This body will be the “executive organ of the CSP, to which it shall be responsible”. The method of choosing the members of the EC represents a new experiment in international organization. There are no vetoes and there are “quasi-permanent seats” for those states with the most significant chemical industries.


The Technical Secretariat (TS)

This organ of the OPCW will provide “administrative and technical support” to the CSP, the EC and other subsidiary organs. It will include an inspectorate which will send out inspectors to conduct on-site inspections (OSI) in chemical and other facilities in states parties.


The Director-General (DG)

The DG is the head and chief administrative officer of the TS. The DG is appointed by the CSP upon the recommendation of the EC for a term of four years, renewable once but not further.


The Requesting/Inspected State Party

The compliance provisions in the CWC are based on the assumption that, in the case of a possible violation at a suspected site, there will be at least one State Party that will request the OPCW to take certain steps to obtain additional information from the suspected party and request the TS to conduct a short-notice or challenge inspection. The State Party making these requests is referred to in the CWC as the “Requesting State Party”. The State Party that is the subject of an inspection is, naturally, the “Inspected State Party”.


Challenge Inspections

In the 1980s, many of the negotiating parties at the CD expressed the wish that the CWC include a procedure that would allow the Requesting State Party, in particularly urgent situations, to call upon the TS to conduct a special type of inspection “anytime, anywhere and on short notice”. However, the US which originally proposed such inspections, backed away after considering the perceived national security risks to themselves. The final compromise achieved was short-notice inspections at any site using a technique of managed access, where the inspectors may have to negotiate to observe certain areas within a site. Still, this level of intrusive inspection is unprecedented in a multilateral treaty.


International Court of Justice (IJC)

Sometimes referred to as the World Court this body sitting at The Hague hears cases where the Parties are either governments, the UN or one of its agencies. It is given a limited role under the Convention: it may be requested to provide advisory opinions and states parties may bring disputes to it.


International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

This body was created in 1957 and many years later was given responsibility for administering certain aspects of nuclear arms control treaties, including the NPT. From its headquarters in Vienna, it sends inspectors to all declared nuclear facilities of the various treaty parties. Hopefully, it will work closely with the OPCW. 12


B – Summary of the CWC’s Compliance Provisions

The treaty contains the widest range of measures to promote compliance of any arms control treaty to date, including:

1. Regular Reporting: states must make many declarations about their production and stockpiling of certain chemicals. These declarations will be reviewed by the Technical Secretariat. (Articles IV.10, V.11 and VI.1)

2. Challenge Inspections: a state may request the TS to make a short notice inspection of any site within a suspected state party. (Article IX and Annex II)

3. Rectification Measures: the EC is authorised to request a suspected State Party to rectify a presumed violation. (Article VII.20(d), Article VII.20)

4. Persuasion Measures: the CSP and the UN Security Council are authorized to recommend and impose, respectively, measures such as economic sanctions with a view to persuading the Respondent State Party to rectify a presumed violation. (Article XII, Articles VIII.20(d) and XII.4; UN Charter: Chapter VII)

5. Enacting Legislation: States Parties are required to enact penal legislation making it a violation of national law for any person to violate the provisions of the CWC. This is in addition to implementing legislation which is necessary to allow the government to meet its other requirements (e.g., establishment of a National Authority). (Article VII.1)

6. National Authority: each State Party must designate or establish a National Authority to oversee implementation of the Convention within the state and to cooperate with the OPCW. (Article VII.6)

7. Dispute Resolution: disputes may be referred to the ICJ by mutual consent. (Article XVI)

8. Assistance Against CW: assistance is to be rendered by the OPCW to any State Party which is threatened with a CW attack. This includes, for instance, the provision of expertise and material for defence against CW attack. (Article X)

9. Development Assistance: there are a few measures which are designed to assist with economic and technological development e.g., loosening of national export laws on chemicals that can be used for peaceful purposes. (Article XI)

10. Disincentive Measures: restrictions and disincentives for countries who, after a reasonable time, choose to remain outside the Convention. (See CD/PV.602, p.8)

11. Prerequisite for Withdrawal: ninety days notice must be given before withdrawal and this must only be in cases of jeopardizing supreme interests. (Article XV)



1  Canada ratified the Geneva Protocol in 1930. The United States ratified it in 1975, fifty years after signing the treaty.

2  By contrast, in 1990 the Soviets declared that their arsenal was less than 50,000 tons.

3  In a binary warhead, two non-toxic precursors are caused to react by triggering a “bursting disc” during flight. Production was begun by the Reagan Administration in December 1987, but was cancelled a few years later after US-Soviet relations had improved and the Soviet army could no longer be shown to be as threatening.

4  The study team was chaired by William Epstein who is familiar to a number of us here and who remains a devoted advocate of disarmament. He is currently working at UNITAR as a senior research officer.

5  Chemicals used in intermediate stages of the production of CW.

6  Published by Science for Peace – Ed.

7  Over 1000 parliamentarians from around the world had signed the declaration by the end of 1993 – Ed.

8  For the role of the National Authority, see Appendix A.

9  This article, co-authored with A. Rolya, appeared in the IAEA Bulletin 3/1993.

10  A. Walter Dorn, Index to the Chemical Weapons Convention, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR), Geneva, 1993.

11  Prepared by Walter Dorn based on the work of Doug Scott.

12  See A. Walter Dorn and A. Rolya, “The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and the IAEA: A Comparative Overview”, IAEA Bulletin, 3/1993, P. 44.


    2018|2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000
1999 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994 | 1993 | 1992 | 1991 | 1990 | 1989 | 1988 | 1987 | 1984–1986



Complete list (pdf). Upcoming/recent public lectures here.  Some presentations (PPT) ONLINE here.  Videos here.


“The UN Security Council,” National Security Programme, Canadian Forces College, Toronto, January 21.

“Emerging Causes of Armed Conflict,” Strategic Leadership Program in Security and Defence Sector of Ukraine, National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Business School (KMBS), Kyiv, Ukraine, January 31.

“The UN & peacekeeping,” podcast interview with Metta Spencer, publisher of Peace Magazine, February 19.

“Transnational Security: Threats and Responses,” KMBS, Kyiv, Ukraine, February 1.

“Response to the PhD defence of Steven Spittaels,” PhD Jury member, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, March 15.

“Counter-Proliferation Verification and Compliance,” Counter-Proliferation Dialogue with Academic Experts (organized by Public Safety Canada), Ryerson University, Toronto, March 25.

“WMD and Canada,” Forum on Non-Proliferation, Arms Control, Disarmament and Space, Global Affairs Canada, Ottawa, March 28.

“Integrated Campaigning to Prevent Instability,” Subject Matter Expert, 2019 Peace and Stability Operations Training and Education Workshop (PSOTEW), Carlyle Barracks, Penn., April 2–5.

“Nuclear Weapons: Global Threats and Personal Links,” introductory remarks and lauding of Douglas Roche at the forum “Nuclear Weapons: The Untold Story,” sponsored by Canadian Pugwash and the International Peace Bureau, Chelsea Hotel, Toronto, April 25.

“Cyberpeacekeeping: An Introduction,” World Federalists Movement Canada, Toronto Branch, Toronto, April 28.

“Weapons Proliferation and Disarmament,” JCSP45, Subject Matter Expert, Syndicate (Dr. D. Last), May 8.

“Global Governance of Security: An Evolution of Ideas and Institutions,” Canadian Security Studies Programme (CSSP), CFC, Toronto, May 10.

“Cyberpeacekeeping: A Technical Exploration (Part I),” World Federalists Movement Canada, Toronto Branch, Toronto, May 26.

“Cyberpeacekeeping: A Technical Exploration (Part II),” World Federalists Movement Canada, Toronto Branch, Toronto, June 21.

“Cyberpeacekeeping: New Ways to Prevent and Manage Cyberattacks,” Congress of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, June 5.

“Canadian Contributions to UN Peace Operations: Comments on Proposals & Innovations,” Exercise Shifting Sands, Advanced Joint Warfighting Studies, CFC, Toronto, June 20.

“Tribute to Nobel Peace Medallion Recipient Setsuko Thurlow,” Canadian Pugwash Group, Luncheon, CFC, Toronto, June 20.

“War and Peace in Cyberspace: The Prospects for Cyber-peacekeeping and Cyber-sanctions.” with Dr. Danielle Stodilka and John Daniele, Canadian International Council (Waterloo branch), Catalyst 137 in the EDC Export Hub, Waterloo, June 21.

“New Technology for Peace & Protection: Expanding the R2P implementation Toolbox” (with Isaias Medina III), sponsored by Permanent Mission of Honduras to the United Nations, UN Conference Room 8, United Nations, New York, June 26.

“Careers in Arms Control and Peacekeeping: Some Personal Experience and Advice,” NATO Association of Canada, Toronto August 7.

“The United Nations Enters Twenty-first Century Technologically: Findings of the UN Tech Project,” Canadian Pugwash Research Roundtable, Ottawa, September 25. (scheduled)

“UN Progress in Technology for Peace Operations,” Expert Dialogue on Technology in UN Peace Operations, Berlin, October 1–2.

“Non-Governmental Organizations,” JCSP, Canadian Forces College, Toronto, October 19.

“Canada’s Foreign, Defence, Development and Trade Policies,” Seminar leader, JCSP, CFC, Toronto, October 31 & November 4.

“Global Governance,” Seminar leader, JCSP, CFC, Toronto, November 5.

“My Convoluted Careers in Science and Peace,” PACS 315: “Engineering and Peace,” Waterloo University, Waterloo (by Skype), November 13.

“Theories of International Relations,” DS571, plenary lecture, National Security Programme 12 (NSP12), CFC, Toronto, November 20.

“The Concept of Power,” DS571, seminar lead, NSP 12, CFC, Toronto, November 20.

“Weak Statism,” DS571, seminar lead, NSP12, CFC, Toronto, November 27.

“Gender in International Relations,” December 3.

“Peace and Stability Operations: An Evolving Practice,” JCSP, November 28, December 3. Also 2020 (January 7, 14, 23, 28; February 4, 6, 11, 18, March 2). (Scheduled)



“UN Peace Operations: Evolution & Challenges,” Workshop on China-Canada Relations, Beijing, China, January 25.

“Peacekeeping on Land and at Sea,” Naval Association of Canada, CFC, Toronto, February 5.

“Canada and the Evolution of International Organization,” Annual Conference on Defence and Security, Conference of Defence Associations (CDA), February 22.

“Multidimensional Peace Support Operations: An Evolving Practice,” JCSP 44, CFC, Toronto, February 23.

“UN Electoral Operations in East Timor 1999: Prelude the International Force (INTERFET),” JCSP 44, CFC, Toronto, February 23.

“Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) in MINUSCA: Recommendations,” Briefing to the SRSG, Force Commander, Police Commissioner, and Director of Mission Support, MINUSCA HQ, Bangui, Central African Republic, March 9.

“Humanitarian Agencies in Stabilization Operations,” Panelist and moderator, JCSP Exercise plenary session, CFC, Toronto, March 20.

“Humanitarian Principles and Mechanisms,” Subject Matter Expert, JCSP syndicates during Exercise, CFC, Toronto, March 21-22.

“UN Peace Operations: Evolution & Challenges,” Visiting Military Officers’ Delegation from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, CFC, Toronto, March 21.

“World Citizenship,” TEDx, Toronto French School, Toronto, April 21.

“Canada and International Peacekeeping,” House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, Ottawa, April 26. Testimonyaudio, transcript (enfr); handout graphs (pdf: enfr); brief (pdf, enfr).

“Situational Awareness and Technology in Peacekeeping,” 4th International Partnership for Technology in Peacekeeping Symposium (“Next Tech Peacekeeping”), 14–18 May 2018.

“Towards Tech-Enabled Peacekeeping: Experiences of a Canadian at UN HQ and in Africa,” Global Affairs Canada, Ottawa, June 26.

“Attack Helicopters and other Crucial Technology for Peace Enforcement,” Conference on the Use of Force in Peacekeeping, Norwegian Defence University College (NDUC), Akershus fortress, Oslo, August 30 and Workshop, August 31.

“The global state of peacekeeping,” World Federalist Movement – Toronto branch, Metro Hall, September 16.

“Emerging technologies and UN peace operations: developments and progress since the report of the Expert Panel,” Stockholm Security Conference, Stockholm, September 20.

“Science for Peace: A Career Exploring Peacekeeping Technology,” Scholars’ Guild, Toronto French School, September 26.

“Attack Helicopters and other Crucial Technology for Peace Enforcement,” Research Roundtable, Canadian Pugwash Group, Ottawa, September 30.

“Pursuing Peace and World Order in the Time of Trump,” Armour Heights Church, October 27. 

“World Federalism and the Lessons of World Wars,” PeaceQuest, Kingston City Hall, Kingston, November 10. 

“Important Concepts in International Affairs and International Relations Theory,” Panel in course DS571, National Security Programme, CFC November 20. 

“Soldiering for Peace: Canadian Contributions to UN Peacekeeping,” St. Mark’s Church, Niagara-on-the-Lake, December 1. 

“Conflict in the World, in the Community and in our Lives at Advent,” St. Mark’s Church, Niagara-on-the-Lake, December 2. 



“UN Peace Operations: Challenges and Options for Canada,” presentation to Directing Staff, Canadian Army Command and Staff College, Ft. Frontenac, Kingston, January 18.

“Technologies for UN Peacekeeping,” University of Fiji, by Skype, January 24.

“Peace Tech eSeminar on Peacekeeping Technology,” Security Governance Group, Waterloo, February 1. (online)

“UN Peace Operations: Canadian and Danish Perspectives,” Centre for Military Studies, Copenhagen, February 7.

“Intelligence in UN Peacekeeping & Protection of Civilians,” lecture in series “Commandant’s Corner,” Norwegian Defence International Centre (NORDEFIC), Oslo, February 8.

“Roundtable on UN Peace Operations Reform Agenda,” Hague Centre for Strategic Studies, The Hague, February 9. 

“UN Peace Operations,” Future Force Conference, The Hague, The Netherlands, February 10.

“Official Dinner with guest of honour Dr. Walter Dorn,” Official Residence of the Ambassador to The Netherlands, The Hague, February 10. 

“UAVs in Peace Operations,” Organization Internationale de la Francophonie, New York City, March 22.

“Peace Support Operations,” JCSP 43, CFC, Toronto, March 23.

“Technology & Innovation in UN Peace Operations,” Keynote address, Annual conference of the Field Technology Conference (for Chiefs of Information and Communications Technology in UN Missions), UN Global Services Centre, Brindisi, Italy, 6 April 2017. 

“Technology and Innovation in UN Operations,” UN Regional Force Commanders conference, United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), Naquora, Lebanon, May 3.

“Technology for UN Peacekeeping ,” PeaceTech Accelator, US Institute of Peace, Washington, DC, May 12. 

“Tech Demo: Commercial Progress on Useful Tools for Peacekeeping (Part 1),” Field Mission Support Section, Department of Field Support, United Nations, New York, May 23. 

“Tech Demo: Commercial Progress on Useful Tools for Peacekeeping (Part 2),” Field Mission Support Section, Department of Field Support, United Nations, New York, May 30. 

“Desirability and Feasibility of a World Federation,” Canadian Peace Research Association, Toronto, June 1. 

“Time for More Positive Politics!” World Federalist Movement (Toronto Branch), Friends House, Toronto, June 2.

“Peacekeeping Tech Demo,” Geospatial Information Section, United Nations, New York, June 8.

“Demonstration of GoTennae: An Off-Grid Comms System using Cell Phones,” United Nations, New York, August 17. 

“Some thoughts … after a long time thinking (about peacekeeping tech),” United Nations (ICTD), New York, August 18.

“Non-governmental Organizations,” moderator for a Panel Discussion with ICRC and MSF, CFC, Toronto, September 5. 

“Technology to Enable UN Peacekeeping I,” Keynote address, Pacific Area Senior Officer Logistics Seminar (PASOLS), Seoul, Republic of Korea, September 12. 

“Technology to Enable Peacekeeping II,” PASOLS, Dora Observatory at the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), Republic of Korea, September 13.

“Canada and Peacekeeping: Past, Present, Future?” Public Panel Discussion, CIGI, Waterloo, September 21. 

“UAVs & Other Useful Gadgets in Peacekeeping: Progress and Prospects,” in Conference on “Canadian Peacekeeping: Where Have We Been? Where Should We Go?” Peace and Conflict Studies Association of Canada Annual Workshop, Waterloo, September 22.

“Cyberpeacekeeping: A New Role for the United Nations?” Canadian Pugwash Research Roundtable, Ottawa, September 26. 

“Peacekeeping Tech: Progress and Proposals (Technology, Processes and Structures),” Brief to the Under-Secretaries-General for Peacekeeping and Field Support, United Nations, New York, September 28. 

“Roundtable on United Nations Peacekeeping,” (with Minister Harjit Sajjan), Ottawa, October 12. 

“Canada & UN Peacekeeping: Back in the Future,” Glendon Campus, York University, Toronto, October 17.

“Peace & Stability Operations,” course instructor’s introduction, Canadian Forces College, October 24 (follow-on classes on Oct 31, Nov 7, 21, 28, Dec 5, 12, 19, Jan 9, 16, 23, Feb 6, 20)

“Canadian Foreign and Defence Policy Seminar,” Joint Command and Staff Programme (JCSP), CFC, Toronto, October 30.

“Canada-US Relations Seminar,” Joint Command and Staff Programme (JCSP), CFC, Toronto, November 1.

“Canada’s Involvement in NATO: Comparing to the UN,” Testimony before the House of Commons Standing Committee on National Defence, Ottawa, November 1. Oral testimony: EnFr. Written brief: En (pdf), Fr (pdf).

“Technology to advance the Women, Peace and Security Agenda,” discussion/meeting with Foreign Minister Chrystia Freeland in the Minister’s office, Centre Block, House of Commons, Ottawa, November 1.

“Air Power in UN Operations,” RMC Annual History Symposium on Peacekeeping, Royal Military College, Kingston, November 2.

“UN Progress on Peacekeeping Tech: From Satellites To UAVs to Ground Sensor and Cell Phones,” World Federalists Movement – Canada, Toronto Branch, Metro Hall, Toronto, November 19.

“Peace Support Operations: Canada and Japan – Natural Partners,” 15th Japan-Canada Symposium for Peace and Security Cooperation, Ottawa, December 6–7.



“The Evolution of Peace Support Operations,” Joint Command and Staff Programme 42, Canadian Forces College (CFC), Toronto, January 28. 

“Unprepared for Peace? The Decline of Canadian Peacekeeping Training (and What to Do About It),” Centre Block, Canadian Parliament, Ottawa, February 2.   

“Capabilities required to operate safely and effectively in violent and asymmetric threat environments”, International Peace Institute, New York, February 11.

“Peace Operations Technology, Training and Canadian developments,” Peace Operations Capacity Building Program, State Department, Washington, DC, February 17. 

“Technology and Crowdsourcing for Ceasefire Monitoring: UN Experience and a Layered Model Proposal,” in workshop on “New Models of Cease-fire Monitoring Using Technology and Crowd-sourcing” (by White House invitation), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) headquarters and the White House Compound, Washington, D.C., February 18.

“The Evolution of UN Peace Operations,” Peace and Conflict Studies Course, Sault College, TorStar Building, Toronto, March 1. 

“Global Perspectives: Peace and Security,” course at Quest University, Squamish, BC, March 7–30. 

“Participation in UN Missions: Military and Police Perspectives” panel moderator in Seminar “Netherlands and Canada: Partners for Peace,” University of Ottawa, May 17.

“Back in the Game: Canada’s return to UN operations” (En, Fr) (2-pager for the Defence Policy Review): Toronto Consultation with the Minister of National Defence, Fairmount Royal York Hotel, Toronto, May 20.

“Back in the Game: Potential Canadian Contributions to UN Peace Operations,” Expert Briefing Series, Multimedia Room, National Defence Headquarters, Ottawa, May 31.  

“Technology and Mass Atrocity Prevention,” Professional Training Program on Atrocity Prevention, sponsored by the Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies (MIGS), Montreal, June 1. 

“UAVs in Peace Operations,” Congress of Humanities and Social Sciences, Canadian Peace Research Association, Calgary, June 2. 

“Canada in Peace Operations in Africa,” Workshop on “Revisiting Africa in Canadian Security Planning & Assessment,” session on “Peacekeeping & Expeditionary Missions Revisited: When to go (or not), how to prepare, what to send?,” Univ. of Calgary, June 4.

“CAF Contributions to Peace Support Operations? To Preventing Conflict?” Defence and Security Stream, JCSP 42, CFC, Toronto, June 7.

“CAF Contributions to Peace Support Operations: Feedback on Syndicate presentations,” Defence and Security Stream, JCSP 42, CFC, Toronto, June 15 & 17.

“Report of the UN Representative of Science for Peace,” Science for Peace Annual General Meeting, University of Toronto, Toronto, June 22. 

“Drones and Killer Robots: Canada’s Policy,” Croft Chapter House, University of Toronto, June 15. (https://youtu.be/uP2zLWWnTWI, 10:20 to 26:15)

“A United Nations System to Prevent Armed Conflict and Protect Civilians,” World Social Forum, McGill University, Montreal, August 12. 

“Critical technological innovations for UN Peace operations,” Peacekeeping & Logistics Africa, Midrand, South Africa, August 31. (by teleconference)

“The United Nations,” Lecture to the Joint Command and Staff Programme, CFC, Toronto, September 6. 

“Back in the Game of UN Peacekeeping: Testimony to the Senate Committee on National Security and Defence,” Parliament Hill, Ottawa, September 19. Testimony quoted in the Committee’s report, “UN Deployment: Prioritizing commitments at home and abroad” (pdf). 

“Technology for UN peace operations: Show and Tell with Moderns Apps and Kid’s Toys,” 10th Annual TIDES Technology Demonstration, National Defence University, Washington, DC. September 21.

“Armed Intervention: If, Why, When & How (the Just War approach),” Group of 78 Annual Conference, September 24.

“Global Governance: Nukes, Wars & Climate Change,” World Federalists Movement – Canada, Toronto, September 25.  

“Canada and UN Peacekeeping: Back to the Future,” lecture in course on “Canada’s Role in Conflict Countries,” Ryerson University, Toronto, September 29.  

“How can the Armed Forces Bridge Training Cultures and Local Contexts,” moderator and presenter, conference on “Peace First: Canada’s Role in Peace Operations,” Queen’s University, Kingston, October 20. 

“New Contributors to Peacekeeping and Canada’s Role,” “panellist at conference on “New Treated in UN-led Peacekeeping: Canadian and Global Perspectives,” McGill University, Montreal, October 21.

“Progress in Science and Technology for UN Peacekeeping”, annual roundtable of the Canadian Pugwash Group, Ottawa, October 23.  

“Canada and UN Peacekeeping: Back to the Future,” Glendon Colloquium, Glendon Campus, York University, Toronto, October 27.

“Introduction of Paul Myer,” Fawcett Forum, University of Toronto, October 27. 

« Un retour vers les opérations de paix ? », L’Institut militaire de Québec, Quebec City, November 3. 

“Protection through Connections: Tech-Enabled Peacekeeping,” Keynote address, Partnership for Technology in Peacekeeping, Seoul, Korea, November 8. 

“New Technology for Protection & Peacekeeping,” Canadian Red Cross conference, “Protection in Times of Conflict,” Glendon Campus, York University, November 17.

“Canada and UN Peacekeeping: Back to the Future,” Glendon Seminar, York University, November 25.

“World Religions on War and Peace,” Quest University, Squamish, BC, November 27–December 21. 



“Technology for Conflict Management and Prevention,” online TechChange course TC109, live with students in a half-dozen countries, January 16.

“When is Armed Force Justified in World Religions? A Comparison of Scriptural Approaches,” Colloquium, Quest University, Squamish, BC, January 19.

“The Canadian Forces, Identity and Peacekeeping,” in Modern Conflict Workshop, sponsored by the Memory Project, Centre for Social Innovation, Toronto, January 14.

“Technology and Innovation in UN Peacekeeping: A Briefing on the Findings and Recommendations of the Expert Panel” (panellist with Jane Holl Lute and Edmond Mulet), International Peace Institute, New York, January 29.

“Peacekeeping Technologies: What the US can do to help,” National Defense University, Washington, DC, February 10.

“Surveillance Technologies for UN Peacekeeping: A Demonstration with Toys,” Quest University, Squamish, BC, March 13.

“Surveillance Technologies for UN Peacekeeping: A Demonstration with Toys,” University of British Columbia, Vancouver, March 16.

“Extremism and Organized Violence,” Quest University, Squamish, BC, March 19.

“Global Governance of Security: The Evolution of Ideas and Institutions,”  Joint Command and Staff Programme (JCSP) 41, CFC, Toronto, April 7.

“The Evolution of Peace and Stability Operations,” Advanced Joint Warfare stream, JCSP 41, CFC, Toronto, April 9.

“Smart Peacekeeping Technology,” Partnership for Effective Peacekeeping, UN Foundation, Washington, DC, May 15.

“Smart peacekeeping: The benefits and dilemmas of tech-enabled operations,” keynote address, Canadian Peace Research Association, Congress of Humanities, Ottawa, June 3.

“When is Armed Force Justified in World Religions? A Comparison of Scriptural Approaches,” in session “Is there a War of Religions?”, Canadian Forces College Symposium, June 11.

“The Responsibility to Protect and New Technology,” keynote address with Hon. Lloyd Axworthy in symposium on “The UN at 70: A Canadian Perspective,” McMaster University, Hamilton, June 12.

“UN Peacekeeping and Technology: A Hands-On Demonstration”, Professional Training Program on the Prevention of Mass Atrocities, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, June 16.

“Uniting East and West,” University of Toronto, 21 June 2015.

“Peacekeeping Technologies: A Demonstration,” Science for Peace AGM, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE), Toronto, June 27.

“The Responsibility to Protect and New Technology,” (with Hon. Lloyd Axworthy), American Academy of Arts and Science, Stanford University, June 29.

“Canadian Pugwash and Existential Threats to Humanity,” Canadian Pugwash Workshop on “The Way Forward to a World Free of Nuclear Weapons,” Pugwash, Nova Scotia, July 11.

“Drones and Peacekeeping: the DRC and Beyond”, Drones Summit on Drones and Aerial Observation: New Technologies for Property Rights, Human Rights, and Global Development, New America, Washington, DC, You Tube, July 22.

“The United Nations,” JCSP 42, CFC, Toronto, September 8.

“Global Governance,” seminar leader, JCSP 42, CFC, Toronto, September 9 and 10.

“Drones and Peacekeeping,” Canadian Peace Initiative, Ottawa, September 28.

“Peacekeeping Technology: A Demonstration,” 9th Annual TIDES Technology Demonstration, National Defence University, Ft. McNair, Washington, DC, October 7.

“Weapons Proliferation and Disarmament,” Canadian Security Studies Programme (CSSP) 17, CFC, Toronto, October 8.

“Peace Tech,” retreat on “Impact of New Technologies on Peace, Security and Development,” Independent Commission on Multilateralism, Greentree Estate, NY, October 24.

“Canada’s Foreign, Defence, Development, and Trade Policies,” seminar chair, JCSP 42, CFC, Toronto, November 2.

“Canada-US Relations,” seminar chair, JCSP 42, CFC, Toronto, November 4.

“New Technology for Peace and Protection: Expanding the R2P Toolbox,” paper by Lloyd Axworthy and A. Walter Dorn (presented by Dr. Axworthy), West Point, NY, November 5.

“Introduction of Hon. Lloyd Axworthy,” before his presentation on “Canada as a Voice for Peace and Development?  A Post-Election Conversation,” University of Toronto, November 7.

“The New Trudeau Cabinet”, panel discussions, Canadian Forces College, Toronto, November 17.

“Canada and Japan in Peacekeeping and Humanitarian Assistance,” bilateral Japan-Canada consultations, Ottawa, 24 November 2015.

“UN Peacekeeping: The Rise of Tech-Contributing Countries,” Canadian Pugwash, Ottawa City Hall, November 29.

“Securing a Nuclear Weapons-Free World:  Creating and retaining the replacement regime,” Canadian Pugwash Research Roundtable, Ottawa City Hall, November 30.


“Technology for Conflict Management and Prevention,” TechChange course TC109, live online with students in a half-dozen countries, January 16.

“When is Armed Force Justified in World Religions? A Comparison of Scriptural Approaches,” Colloquium, Quest University, Squamish, BC, January 19.

“U Thant, the Peacemaker: His Achievements and Challenges,” U Thant House, Yangoon, Myanmar, February 8.

“Saving the World: U Thant in the Cuban Missile Crisis,” U Thant House, Yangoon, Myanmar, February 9.

“Peace Support Operations,” Advanced Joint Warfare Studies stream, JCSP 40, CFC, Toronto, March 24.

“UN Human Security Intelligence: The Whole is Greater than the Sum of the Parts,” International Studies Association 55th Annual Convention, Toronto, March 28.

“From Just to Unjust Wars: a Survey of Experts from across the Political Spectrum,” International Studies Association 55th Annual Convention, Toronto, March 29.

“Global Governance of Security,” Defence and Security Studies stream, Joint Command and Staff Programme 40, CFC, Toronto, March 31.

“Unmanned Aerial and Ground Vehicles: A Demonstration,” Toronto French School, April 16.

“Introduction of the Honorable Douglas Roche,” Toronto book launch of Peacemakers: How People Around the World are Building a World Free of War, University College, University of Toronto, April 25. (Video at youtu.be/hYPkZVIKkeE)

“Just War Theory and World Religions,” Defence and Security Studies stream, Joint Command and Staff Programme 40, CFC, Toronto, May 2.

“Uses of Technology in UN Operations,” Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations, New York, May 8.

“Technology for Peacekeeping,” Vienna Seminar on Peacekeeping, National Defence Academy, Vienna, May 13. Online: www.ipinst.org/events/conferences/details/542-war-and-peace-in-a-digital-age-2014-vienna-seminar.html.

“The Tumultuous 1990,” Defence and Security Studies stream of JCSP 40, Canadian Forces College, Toronto, May 26.

“A Peacekeeping Force for Afghanistan?” (paper presented by co-author Mohammed Masoodi) 2014 Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Brock University, St. Catherines, May 30.

“Protection of Civilians in UN Peacekeeping”, Professional Training Program on the Prevention of Mass Atrocities, Concordia University, Montreal, June 18.

“Aerial Data & Geographic Information Systems,” Panel respondent, Partner’s Dialogue on New Technologies in UN Peace Operations, Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF), Berlin, August 21.

Book launch of Air Power in UN Operations: Wings for Peace (with speech, and introduction of Lieutenant-General (ret’d) Roméo Dallaire), Hart House, University of Toronto, September 16. (video)

“Practical Technologies to Save Lives: A demonstration for humanitarian and peacekeeping missions,” University of Toronto, September 17. (video)

“Lessons from World War I and the 1919 Paris Peace Conference” in a panel on “World War 1 and Contemporary Policy on War and Peace”, Canadian War Museum, September 27.

“Peace Talks and a Peacekeeping Force for Afghanistan?” in panel “Pursuing an Afghan Peace: Women, Civil Society and Blue Helmets,” Ottawa Public Library, Main Branch, Ottawa, September 29.

“Peacekeeping Technologies: Commercial solutions are evolving fast”, lecture & demonstration, 8th Annual TIDES Technology Demonstration, National Defence University, Ft. McNair, Washington, DC, October 8.

“Weapons Proliferation, Control and Disarmament,” Canadian Security Studies Programme, CFC, Toronto, October 9.

“Keeping the Peace: UN, Canadian and Civil Society,” author reading from writings at the “Literary Feast for Guatemala,” Guatemala Canada Solidarity, St. Paul’s Parish Hall, Kingston, October 20.

“Woodrow Wilson and the Dawn of International Organization,” Woodrow Wilson House, Washington, DC, October 24.



“Torture in the Somalia Affair: Compared & Contrasted with the Afghan Detainees Issue,” Forum on “Evidence of Torture in Canada: the New Normal of Official Complicity,” Osgoode Law School, York University, January 9. (YouTube video, minutes 36:27-48:15)

“The Cuban Missile Crisis: The Closest the World Came to Nuclear War”, University College, University of Toronto, January 24. (YouTube video, 58 min)

“Enhancing Effective Peace Operations: How Do We Make Better Use of Modern Technology?” Challenges Forum (sponsored by Argentina, Sweden & Switzerland), New York, NY, February15.

“Intelligence for Peace Operations: UAVs and Other Sources,” Center for International Peace Operations, Berlin, Germany, February 27. (news)

“Technology in UN Peacekeeping,” in course “Technology for Conflict Management and Peacebuilding”, TechChange Institute, February 18.

“A History of Progress in Stopping Violence Against Women,” in a panel on “Women, Peace and Security: Strategies to End Violence Against Women in Armed Conflict Areas and Leading Humanitarian Disarmament Efforts,” Baha’i UN Office, New York, March 12.

“Canada: the Once and Future Peacekeeper?”, Laurier’s Military History Colloquium, Luncheon speaker, Waterloo, May 4.

“Peacekeeping Technology for the Protection of Civilians,” at the Forum for the International Day of UN Peacekeepers, National Defense University (NDU), May 29 (am).

“UN Peacekeeping Technology for the Protection of Civilians: A Demonstration,” Stimson Center, Washington, DC, May 29 (pm). Invite (pdf); Webcast: http://vimeo.com/67656346; Summary.

“Peacekeeping Technology: Demonstration and Discussion,” U.S. Institute for Peace, Washington, DC, May 30. (photo)

“Graduation Address at the Toronto French School to the Class of 2013”, Toronto French School, May 31. (text)

“Critical Issues for Peacebuilding in Sudan,” Workshop on “Sudan and South Sudan: Contributing to Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Stabilization,” Laurier Centre for Military Strategic and Disarmament Studies, Balsillie School of International Affairs, July 8.

“Unmanned Vehicles in Peacebuilding and Stability Operations,” Conference on Unmanned Vehicles in Peacebuilding and Stability Operations, Reserve Officers Association, Washington, DC.  Available on youtube (minutes 50:00-1:08:40 and Q&A later), September 16.

“UN Technology on the Frontlines: Addressing the Crises in Syria and the Democratic Republic of the Congo,” co-sponsored by the House Central African Caucus, Rayburn Building, Capitol Hill, Washington, DC, September 16. (photo)

“Technology in Peace Operations: Converging Cross-Cutting Solutions,” Luncheon Speaker, 7th Annual TIDES Technology Field Demonstration, National Defence University, Washington, DC, October 2.

“Introduction of Gwynne Dyer for his talk” Decline of War, University of Toronto, November 20.

“Canadian legislation (Bill C-6) to implement the Convention on Cluster Munitions: Testimony before the Standing Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Development”, House of Commons, Ottawa, November 21.
Transcript: www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=6321468&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=41&Ses=2; Audio (Floor, En, Fr):  parlvu.parl.gc.ca/ParlVu/ContentEntityDetailView.aspx?lang=en&ContentEntityId=11038. (Chair’s intro: 0:44-1:23; Dorn Opening Remarks: 10:10-17:17; Paul Dewar Q&A: 22:11-24:42 and 45:42-47:18; Marc Garneau Q&: 34:50-38:38; Goldring?: 49:20-50:39; Closing: 55:13-55:46)

“High Representative for Disarmament Angela Kane: Thank you address”, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, December 3.



“East Timor 1999: Experiences in Elections, Independence and Self-Rule,” Ludwig-Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, January 17.

“The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping from a Practitioner-Professor’s View,” Hochschule für Politik, Munich, January 18.

“Intelligence-Gathering in UN Peace Operations,” University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany, January 19.

“UN Military Interventions: Choices, Categories and Cases,” University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, February 3.

“Professional Military Education: Meeting [Roundtable] with the Standing Committee on National Defence,” CFC, Toronto, February 13.

“Technology in UN Peace Operations,” in course POE410 (“Advanced Topics in International Peacekeeping”), Royal Military College, Kingston, March 9.

«La place des civils stagiaires et enseignants au sein du Collège des Forces canadiennes», 3ème séminaire des directeurs et commandants d’Écoles de Guerre francophones, Yaoundé, Cameroon, March 20.

“Eyes in the Sky: The Power of Airborne Witness in Preventing Mass Atrocities,” workshop organized by Harvard’s Mass Atrocity Response Operations (MARO) Project, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington DC, March 23.

“Peace and Stability Operations,” JCSP 38 Elective, CFC, Toronto, March 30, April 5, 13, 27 and May 4, and 14.

“Science and Religion,” Armour Heights Presbyterian Church, April 12.

“Dropping Bombs and Firing Rockets: Robust UN Peacekeeping in the Congo, 1960s and Today,” Canadian Aviation Historical Society (CAHS) – Toronto Chapter, April 14. (summary in pdf)

“High-Tech Peacekeeping: Oxymoron or Salvation from War?”, Centre for Inquiry, Toronto branch, University of Toronto, May 22. (scheduled)

“Expert Evaluations of America’s and Canada’s Wars: Just, Unjust, and Everything In Between”  Canadian Peace Research Association (CPREA) annual conference, University of Waterloo/ Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, May 31 – June 2. (TBD)

“Stability Operations,” JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, May 17.

“Peace Support Operations Discussion,” Subject Matter Expert, May 18.

“Securing the Peaceful Use of Space for Future Generations,” session chair, CIGI, Waterloo,  May 23-24.

Keeping Watch New York Book Launch,” the Academic Council on the United Nations System, Graduate Institute, City University of New York, June 14.

“Technology for Peace Operations: Finding Effective Enablers,” event sponsored by Canadian Mission to the United Nations and by New York University’s Center on International Cooperation, United Nations, New York, June 13.

“Keeping Watch: New York Book Launch,” Academic Council on the UN System, City University of New York Graduate Center, New York, June 14.

“Technology for Conflict Management and Prevention,” TechChange course (TC109) online video (students watching in a half-dozen countries), Toronto, August 8.

“Envisioning a World Without Nuclear Weapons,” Workshop, Pugwash, NS, August 17.

“Just War Tradition and the Ethics of War,” JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, September 4.

“Were the Wars Fought by Canada and by the United States Just? A Just War Index”, in “Vital Discussions of Human Security” lecture series, University of Toronto, September 13. YouTube Video.

“National Security & International Affairs: Course Introduction,” JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, September 17.

“Theoretical Foundations Seminar,” Seminar leader, JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, September 19.

“Social Fabric of Canada,” JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto September 20. (pdf of PPT) (français)

“Canadian Government and Society Seminar,” seminar leader, Bilingual syndicates, JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, September 25.

“Canadian Defence, Development and Foreign Policy Seminar,” seminar leader, bilingual syndicates, JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, September 28.

“US Foreign and Defence Policies Seminar,” seminar leader, JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, October 11.

“Defence of Canada – Four Tendencies,” lecture discussion, JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, October 12.

“Cuban Missile Crisis: How a UN Secretary-General averted doomsday,” Trinity College, University of Toronto, October 16.

“Bill S-10 on the Implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions: Concerns about the Legality, Morality and Normality,” witness testimony before the Standing Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Ottawa, October 19. (En) Government website: En, Fr.

“Strategic Express Seminar,” Seminar leader, JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, October 23-24.

“The Ghost of Somalia: Challenges for Canadian Forces Operations in the Horn of Africa,” Workshop on “Insecurity in the Horn of Africa,” Wilfred Laurier University, Waterloo, October 26.

“The Closest Brush: How a UN Secretary-General Averted Doomsday,” Tenth Annual Laurier Lecture, Wilfred Laurier University, October 29.

“Global Powers Seminar,” Seminar leader, JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, October 30-31.

“The Role of International Organizations,” lecture, JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, October 31.

“Global Institutions Seminar,” syndicates leader, JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto, November 2.

“The Cuban Missile Crisis a Half Century Later: The Untold Story”, Canadian Club of Kingston, Kingston, November 7.

“Luis Moreno-Ocampo: First Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court,” Introduction of the Speaker, Commandant’s Hour, JCSP 39, CFC, Toronto November 9.

“The Cuban Missile Crisis: Moderated and Mediated by the United Nations,” Research Roundtable of Canadian Pugwash, Armour Heights Officers’ Mess, Toronto, November 10.

“The International Criminal Court Investigates Plausible Deniability,” in panel on “The Rule of Law as an Alternative to War,” Canadian Pugwash Forum, Armour Heights Officers’ Mess, Toronto, November 10.

“Luis Moreno-Ocampo: Pioneer of International Criminal Law,” luncheon introduction of keynote speaker, Fall Forum of Canadian Pugwash, Armour Heights Officers’ Mess, Toronto, November 10. YouTube Video.

“How Just are the Wars Fought by the United States and by Canada? An Expert Survey using Just War Criteria”, Dominican University College, Ottawa, November 16.

“The Cuban Missile Crisis and the United Nations: A Neglected Aspect of How Doomsday was Averted”, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany, November 20.

“Religions on War: How Similar are They?” Dominican University College, Ottawa, December 20.



“Uganda’s Haunted Children: Dealing with the Lord’s Resistance Army,” Panellist, Canadian Lawyers for International Human Rights, Queens University Law School, Kingston, March 19.

“Peacekeeping and Development,” Queen’s International Development Conference, Kingston, April 2.

“Peace and Stability Operations: An Overview,” in “Peace and Stability Operations Elective,” CFC, Toronto, April 6. (pdf of PPT)

“Observer Missions and Interposed Forces,” in “Peace and Stability Operations Elective,” CFC, Toronto, April 13. (pdf of PPT)

“Introduction of LCol John Conrad on Canadian Experience in Peacekeeping,” in “Peace and Stability Operations Elective,” CFC, Toronto, May 13.

“Intelligence-led Peacekeeping: the UN Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) 2006-07,” Military and Police Advisers Community (MPAC), Russian Mission to the United Nations, New York, May 24. (pdf of PPT)

“The United Nations and the Use of Force (I) – The Dynamics of International Intervention,” panel chair, 24th Annual Meeting of the Academic Council on the UN System (ACUNS), Waterloo, June 3.

“Air Attacks in Robust Peacekeeping: the UN Operation in the Congo 1960-64,” 24th Annual Meeting of ACUNS, Waterloo, June 3. (pdf of PPT)

“Kinetic Air Power in Robust Peacekeeping: the Congo 1961-63 (Between Peacekeeping and Enforcement)”, Workshop on Air Power in UN Operations, Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Centre, Trenton, June 15. (pdf of PPT)

“UN Attack Helicopters in the Heart of Africa, 2004 onwards” or “Twenty-first Century Air Power in the Congo (2000s): the Mi-35 Attack Helicopter in Peacekeeping”, Workshop on Air Power in UN Operations, Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Centre, Trenton, June 16. (pdf of PPT)

“UN Peacekeeping and Combat,” Panel Discussant, 17th Annual Air Force Historical Workshop, Workshop on Air Power in UN Operations, Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Centre, Trenton, June 15.

“Introduction of Senator Roméo Dallaire, Keynote Speaker”, 17th Annual Air Force Historical Workshop, Canadian Forces Aerospace Warfare Centre, Trenton, June 16.

“The National Security and International Affairs course: Briefing to Directing Staff of JCSP DL (Distance Learning) programme,” CFC, Toronto, August 27.

“Research Expertise Within the Directorate of Academics at the Canadian Forces College,” JCSP38, CFC, Toronto, August 29.

“Just War Tradition and the Ethics of War,” JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, September 2. (pdf of PPT) (français)

“National Security & International Affairs: Course Introduction,” JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, September 19.

“Introduction of the Honorable Douglas Roche,” Toronto book launch of “How We Stopped Loving the Bomb,” University of Toronto, September 20.

“Theoretical Foundations Seminar,” Seminar leader, JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, September 21.

“The Social Fabric of Canada,” JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto September 22.

“Libya: The End Game,” panel sponsored by the Rideau Institute, Ottawa City Hall, Ottawa, September 22.

“KEEPING WATCH: Monitoring, Technology and Innovation in UN Peace Operations,” Book launch, Ottawa Public Library, Ottawa, September 24.

“Canadian Government and Society Seminar,” Seminar leader, Bilingual syndicates, JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, September 27.

“Canadian Defence, Development and Foreign Policy Seminar,” Seminar leader, bilingual syndicates, JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, September 30.

“US Foreign and Defence Policies Seminar,” Seminar leader, JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, October 13.

“Strategic Express Seminar,” Seminar leader, JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, October 26.

“Global Powers Seminar,” Seminar leader, JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, November 1.

“The Role of International Organizations,” lecture, JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, November 2. (pdf of PPT) (français)

“The Canadian Military in War and Peace,” Unitarian Congregation of Mississauga, November 2.

“Global Institutions Seminar,” bilingual syndicates, JCSP 38, CFC, Toronto, November 4.

“Canadian Contributions in War and Peace,” Rotary Club of Toronto, Royal York Hotel, November 11.

“Science in the Service of Peace: Monitoring Technologies for UN Peacekeeping,” University College, University of Toronto, November 17.

“Introduction of Hon. Douglas Roche,” Canadian Pugwash Fall Dinner, Armour Heights Officers’ Mess, November 19.

“The Past, Present, and Future of Canadian Peacekeeping (A formal debate)”, Department of Philosophy, University of Toronto, November 24.

“Political and Technological INNOVATION in UN Peace Operations: Canadian Contributions?”, Project Ploughshares, CIGI, Waterloo, December 2.

“KEEPING WATCH: Monitoring, Technology and Innovation in UN Peace Operations,” Centre for Security and Defence Studies Speaker Series at NPSIA, Carleton University, Ottawa, December 5.

“Innovation in Peacekeeping: Canadian Contributions”, World Federalists of Canada – Montreal Chapter, Montreal, December 5.

“KEEPING WATCH: Monitoring, Technology and Innovation in UN Peace Operations,” Réseau francophone de recherche sur les opérations de paix (ROP), Université of Montréal, December 6.

“Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) in UN Peace Operations,” in Unmanned Aerial Systems Summit, Convention Centre, Ottawa, December 14.



“The Cry From Beneath the Rubble: Help Haiti!” Armour Heights Presbyterian Church, Toronto, January 17.

“Moving NATO toward Nuclear Disarmament,” in conference “Practical Steps to Zero Nuclear Weapons,” session chair introducing: US Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Eliot Kang, Liberal Foreign Affairs critic Bob Rae, Secretary of the North Atlantic (NAC) Council Ted Whiteside, and DG Policy Planning at DND Michael Margolian, Ottawa, January 26.

“Technology as a Key Enabler in UN Peacekeeping Operations: Project Debrief,” Stabilization and Reconstruction Programs Division (IRG), Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, Ottawa, January 27.

“Eyes in the Sky: Airborne and Satellite Reconnaissance for UN Peacekeeping,” Ottawa Branch of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute (CASI) and the Canadian Remote Sensing Society (CRSS), Ottawa, January 27.

“Canada in UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave?” Dept. of Political Science, University of Western Ontario, February 1.

“Will Canada be a UN Peacekeeper Again?” Ottawa Out Front luncheon speaker series, meeting hosted by Gloria Galloway of the Globe and Mail, Sheraton Hotel, Ottawa, February 11. (pdf of PPT) Filmed by the Canadian Public Affairs Channel (CPAC). Available online; commentary on talk in Embassy newsweekly (online) (pdf).

“Using Force to Protect Civilians in the UN Peace Operations,” Workshop, International Studies Association (ISA) Annual Convention, New Orleans, February 16.

“The Protection of Civilians: The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti,” International Studies Association (ISA) Annual Convention, New Orleans, February 18.

“Plausible Deniability Roundtable for Staff of the Office of the Prosecutor?” Roundtable, Office of the Prosecutor (OTP), International Criminal Court, The Hague, 17 May 2010.

“Plausible Deniability or How Leaders May Try to Conceal Their Roles,” ICC/OTP Guest Lecture, International Criminal Court, The Hague, 18 May 2010. (pdf of PPT)

“The International Criminal Court and the Crime of Aggression,” International Society for Systems Science, Workshop, Wilfred Laurier University, July 18.

“Just War Tradition and the Ethics of War,” JCSP, CFC, September 3.

“National Security and International Affairs: Course Introduction,” JCSP, CFC, September 27.

“Social Fabric of Canada,” JCSP, CFC, September 30. (pdf of PPT)

“Canadian Government and Society,” seminar leader, JCSP, CFC, October 5.

“Canadian Defence, Development and Foreign Policy,” seminar leader, JCSP, CFC, October 8.

“UN Peace Operations: Helping to Bring Peace to War-Torn Lands,” Armour Heights Presbyterian Church, Toronto, October 14.

“US Foreign and Defence Policies,” seminar leader, JCSP, CFC, October 14.

“Strategic Express Seminar,” seminar leader, JCSP, CFC, October 26.

“Global Powers Seminar,” seminar leader (and planner), JCSP, CFC, November 2.

“The United Nations,” plenary lecture, JCSP, CFC, November 4. (pdf of PPT)

“Global Institutions,” seminar leader, JCSP, CFC, November 5.

“Remembrance Day talk,” Armour Heights Presbyterian Church, Toronto, November 11.

“International Law and the De-legitimization of War: A Student Roundtable,” Chair, Hart House, University of Toronto, November 12.

“Introduction of Prof. Ramesh Thakur (keynote speaker at the Professor Eric Fawcett Memorial Dinner),” Armour Heights Officer’s Mess, November 13.

“Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Pugwash Group,” meeting Chair, Armour Heights Officer’s Mess, November 14.

“International Law and Institutions: Building Peace and Security,” Chair of panel session at Canadian Pugwash Forum, Armour Heights Officer’s Mess, November 14.

“Introduction of Sarah Bokari, speaking on ‘A Nuclear Pakistan and the War Against Terrorism,’” CFC Brown-Bag  Luncheon seminar, CFC, November 15.

“Using Force for Civilian Protection: The Case of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti”,” guest lecture in course “The Use of Force for Humanitarian Purposes” (PCS 360Y), University of Toronto, November 24.

“What next after Afghanistan: Peace Support Operations?” Canadian Forces Recruiting Group Fall Conference, Toronto, November 25.

“Course and Module Review for DS547 (National Security and International Affairs),” meeting chair, Joint Command and Staff Programme, CFC, November 30.

“Peace and Stability Operations: Brief Overview of a JCSP Elective,” JCSP, CFC, December 8.



“The United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) in 2009: Improving Technical Surveillance,” Brief to UNFICYP military staff, Camp Blue Beret, Nicosia, January 23.

“Canada and UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave?” Course: International Relations 2231, University of Western Ontario, February 2.

“Introduction of Prof. Pierre Pahlavi,” Brown-Bag Luncheon Speaker Series, CFC, Toronto, February 11.

“Towards a Just War Index?” International Studies Association (ISA), New York, February 15.

“World Religions and Norms of War: Panellist,” United Nations, New York, February 19.

“The Strangest Dream: No Longer So Strange,” Panellist and Master of Ceremonies for Toronto Premier of the film “The Strangest Dream,” National Film Board of Canada (NFB) Mediateque, Toronto, March 11.

“The Strangest Dream: No Longer So Strange,” Panellist and chair, National Film Board of Canada, Hart House, University of Toronto, March 25.

“Monitoring Technologies in UN Peacekeeping,” 58th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, The Hague, April 17.

“Warfighting vs. Peacekeeping in Afghanistan: Evaluating Two Strategies using Just War Theory?” Keynote speech at the inauguration of the Centre for Public Theology, Huron College, University of Western Ontario, May 9.

“When is Armed Force Justified in World Religions? A Comparative Scriptural Approach,” Centre for International Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, May 13.

“Eastern Congo: Signs of Great Tragedy and Glimmers of Great Hope,” Armour Heights Presbyterian Church, June 11.

“At the Crossroads: Advice for the Science Students in the Shad Valley Programme,” Pugwash, NS, July 10.

“Making a Difference with Science,” Open Forum organized by the Pugwash Peace Exchange, Pugwash, NS, July 10.

“Rededication of the Pugwash Legion,” Pugwash Cenotaph, Pugwash, NS, July 11.

“Closing Address and Thank You to Keynote Speaker Talatbek Masadykov (Chief Political Affairs Officer with the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan),” Pugwash Annual Dinner for Peace, Pugwash High School Gym, July 11.

“The United Nations in Complex Emergencies,” Joint Forces Staff College, Norfolk, VA, July 22.

“Role Playing UN Officials: Guidance for Exercise Purple Lightning,” Joint Forces Staff College, Norfolk, VA, July 22.

“Twenty-First Century Peacekeeping for a Twenty-First Century Mexico,” Centro de Estudios Superiores Navales (CESNAV), Secretaría de Marina, Mexico City, September 10.

“Eyes in the Sky: Airborne and Satellite Reconnaissance for UN Peacekeeping,” Toronto Branch of the Canadian Aeronautics and Space Institute (CASI), Toronto, September 24.

“The Cuban Missile Crisis: History Revised from a UN Perspective,” Course: International Relations 2701E, University of Western Ontario, London, October 6.

“Canadian Government and Society” Seminar, JCSP, CFC, October 20.

“The United Nations in Complex Emergencies,” Joint Forces Staff College, Norfolk, VA, October.

“Role Playing UN Officials: Guidance for Exercise Purple Lightning,” Joint Forces Staff College, Norfolk, VA, October.

“Introduction and Thank You for Guest Speaker Dr. David Mandel,” Brown-Bag Seminar, CFC, October 21.

“Canadian Defence, Development, Foreign Policy” Seminar, JCSP, CFC October 23.

“US Foreign and Defence Policies” Seminar, JCSP, CFC, October 28.

“Monitoring and Surveillance Technologies for UN Peacekeeping,” Roundtable for the Service Chiefs of the Office of Military Affairs, Department of Peacekeeping Operations. United Nations, New York, October 30.

“Annual Report of the Chair,” Canadian Pugwash Annual General Meeting, Toronto City Hall, November 15.



“Modelling the UN or Being a Model for the UN?” University of British Columbia Model UN Conference, Coast Plaza Hotel, Vancouver, January 10.

“Canada and UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave?” Liu Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, January 10.

“Canada and UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave?” University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, January 30.

“Constraints on Military Power,” National Security Studies Programme, CFC, Toronto, January 31.

“Restoring Canada’s Disarmament Priorities”, Middle Powers Initiative, Ottawa, February 3.

“Introduction of Paul Heinbecker”, Expert Seminar on Nuclear Disarmament, Ottawa, February 4.

“Afghanistan from 2001 to the present,” panelist in seminar “Afghanistan: Canada at the Crossroads,” Rideau Institute, Ottawa, February 5.

“Le Canada et les missions de paix: retrouver le chemin,” L’Université du Québec à Montréal, February 6.

“Non-Governmental Organizations,” National Security Studies Programme, CFC, Toronto, February 14.

“Canada and the United Nations,” National Security Studies Programme, CFC, Toronto, February 14.

“Monitoring Technology in Peace Operations: The Way Forward for the UN,” briefing to the UN Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping and the Extended Senior Management Team, New York, February 11.

“When is Armed Force Justified?” Armoured Heights Presbyterian Church, February 14.

“Monitoring Technology as a Key Enabler in UN Peace Operations,” presentation and seminar chair, Department of Peacekeeping Operations, United Nations, New York, March 12.

“The Evolution of Peace Support Operations,” Joint Command and Staff Programme (JCSP) Elective, CFC, Toronto, March 17.

“Summary/translation of Miloud Chennoufi’s talk ‘A Critical Assessment of the Concept of War in Realist International Relations Theory’,” Brown-bag luncheon seminar, CFC, March 20.

“From League to UN: Balance of Power, Collective Security and World Governance,” elective, JCSP, CFC, Toronto, March 25.

“Peacekeeping Sponsors: League of Nations, United Nations, Regional Organizations,” elective, JCSP, CFC, Toronto, March 31.

“Surveillance Technologies for Peace Support and Nation Building: Big Brother, Big Helper, or Big Bother?”, Brown-bag luncheon seminar, CFC, April 17.

“Justifying Force: Comparing Religions (A Project Report),” Defence Research and Development Canada – Toronto, Toronto, April 24.

“Canada in UN Peacekeeping: Proud Past, Absent Present, Strong Future?” / “Le Canada et les missions de paix de l’ONU: fier passé, vide actuel, avenir plus engagé?”, World Federalists Movement of Canada, Montreal Branch, Montreal, April 25.

“When is War and Armed Force Justified? A Comparison of Scriptures from Six World Religions,” presentation at conference “Sacred and Secular in a Global Canada,” University of Western Ontario, May 10.

“Islam in Canada”, panel chair in conference “Sacred and Secular in a Global Canada,” University of Western Ontario, May 11.

“When is War and Armed Force Justified? A Comparison of Scriptures from World Religions,” Annual Science and Technology (S&T) Symposium, Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC), Ottawa, May 21.

“Science for Peace or Science for War?” testimony to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Industry, Science and Technology, June 5.

“Canadian Foreign Policy and UN Peacekeeping,” University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, June 9.

“Where have All the Canadian Peacekeepers Gone?”, CTSTV, “On the line” phone-in show, Burlington, ON, September 2.

“Canadian Fatalities in Afghanistan,” CTV Newsnet, Burlington, ON, September 2.

“The Cuban Missile Crisis,” International Relations (2nd year) course, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, September 29.

“Canadian Peacekeeping: Strong Tradition, Proud Future? (The Influence of Afghanistan),” International Security (3rd year) course, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, September 29.

“Canadian Foreign and Defence Policy Seminar”, CFC, October 14.

“Global Express” Seminar, CFC, October 15.

“Manipur in Conflict: An Important but Neglected Story,” Church Centre for the United Nations, New York, October 6.

“Douglas Roche at 80: Time to Celebrate!” Lunch in honour of Douglas Roche, October 16.

“NATO, Afghanistan and Peacekeeping Workshop (Introduction),” Canadian Pugwash Group, Ottawa, October 17.

“The United Nations,” Joint Command and Staff Programme (JCSP35), CFC, Toronto, October 28.

“Arms Control,” Joint Command and Staff Programme (JCSP35), CFC, Toronto, October 31. (pdf of PPT)

“Eulogy for Professor Eric Fawcett,” Fawcett Forum, Trinity College, University of Toronto, November 7.

“When are Wars and Armed Force Justified? A Comparison of Scriptures from Seven World Religions,” Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society, Canadian Branch conference, Royal Military College, November 8.

“Science for Peace: Monitoring and Surveillance Technologies in UN Peace Operations”, Conference of the Armies of the Americas, Toronto, November 19.

“The Evolution of Science, Technology and Humanity” (dinner speech), Conference of the Armies of the Americas, Toronto, November 19.

“The Three Block War: A Fatally-Flawed Approach to Terrorism,” Humber College, Toronto, November 25.

“Introduction of LCol Ian McClulloch”, Brown Bag Luncheon speaker series, Canadian Forces College, 26 November 2008.

“Technologies for Peacekeeping: A Brief to the Military Directors (U1-U9) of the UN Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)”, Port-au-Prince, December 23.



“Tools of the Trade? Monitoring and Surveillance Technologies in UN Peacekeeping,” UN Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations, Trusteeship Council Chamber, United Nations, New York, March 5.

“Surveillance Technologies in UN Peacekeeping: Big Brother? Big Helper? Big Bother?”, Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, Toronto, March 16.

“The Evolution of International Organization”, Centre for Peace Studies, University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway, April 23.

“UN Representative’s Report on UN-NGO Activities in New York”, Science for Peace Annual General Meeting, OISE, Toronto, May 12.

“World Harmony”, speech as part of Master of Ceremonies duties for the World Harmony Run Ceremony on Parliament Hill, Ottawa, May 29. (with Speaker of House of Commons, 20 ambassadors and several MPs)

“Surveillance Technologies in UN Peacekeeping: Big Brother? Big Helper? or Big Bother?”, Toronto Horizon seminar, Defence Research & Development Canada (DRDC), Toronto, June 12.

“Technical Monitoring Systems”, Military and Police Advisers Community (MPAC), New York, June 19.

“A UN Peacekeeping Mission for the Gaza Strip?”, interview on CBC’s The Current, June 26.

“Canadian Internationalism in an Era of American (Neo)Imperialism”, Centre for Peace Studies, University of Tromso, Tromsø, Norway, August 16.

“Religion-Inspired Political Movements or Politically-Inspired Religious Movements?”, 57th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, Bari, Italy, October 24.

“Forty-Five Years after History’s Nuclear Climax (U Thant and the Cuban Missile Crisis)”, 57th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, Bari, Italy, October 24.

“Canada and Culture of War: Whither the International Decade for the Culture of Peace?”, Co-moderator, Eric Fawcett Memorial Forum, University of Toronto, November 3.

“Learning Lessons from the UN Operation in the Congo 1960-64”, Advanced Military Studies Course, CFC, Toronto, November 5.

“Multi-Agencies in Support of Operations”, panelist in Advanced Military Studies Course, CFC, Toronto, November 7.

“Just and Unjust Wars”, Armour Heights Presbyterian Church, Toronto, November 8.

“Remembrance Day Sermon”, Armour Heights Presbyterian Church, Toronto, November 11.

“Canada and the Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Absent With or Without Leave?”, Defence Security Innovation Conference, Quebec City, November 16.

“Communicating in a Disaster: UN Peace Operations,” Royal Canadian Military Institute (RCMI), Toronto, November 22.

“Strategic Aspects and Perspectives of the Three-Block War Concept”, Joint Command and Staff Programme 34 (JSCP34), CFC, December 3. (pdf of PPT)

“International Organizations – The United Nations”, co-lectured with Dr. Adam Chapnick, JCSP34, CFC, December 12.

“Arms Control: Treaties and Practice”, JCSP34, CFC, December 13.

“Global Threats, Challenges & Opportunities”, JSCP34, CFC, December 15.



“The Canadian Forces Deployment into Kandahar, Afghanistan”, radio interviews on nine CBC stations (Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, Sudbury, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Victoria, St. John’s, Winnipeg), 15 January 2006.

“Constraints on Military Power”, National Security Studies Course (NSSC), Canadian Forces College (CFC), Toronto, January 25.

“International Organizations”, National Security Studies Course (NSSC), Canadian Forces College (CFC), Toronto, January 30.

“Non-Governmental Organizations”, NSSC, CFC, Toronto, February 1.

“Operation Assurance: Case Study of CF intervention in Zaire 1996”, Subject Matter Expert and panelist (with Ontario Lieutenant-Governor James Bartleman), NSSC, CFC, Toronto, February 24.

“Laws and Legal Constraints in Military Operations”, Subject Matter Expert (SME), NSSC seminar, March 2.

“Canada and the United Nations”, NSSC, CFC, March 20.

“A Tribute (and Toast) to the International Knightly Order of St. George”, Niagara Falls, May 13.

“Peace Support Operations”, Command and Staff Course, CFC, May 15.

“The Present and Future Nature of Canadian Interventions – UN or Coalitions?”, Royal Canadian Military Institute (RCMI), May 16.

“Revolution in Military Affairs: The Three Block War?”, CSC lecture with Dr. Peter Foot, CFC, Toronto, May 23.

“Canada in the World”, seminar Subject Matter Expert and Syndicate leader (français), CSC, CFC, May 25.

“Peacekeeping and Other Canadian Operations”, lecture to visitors from the Korean National Defence University, CFC, Toronto, June 2.

“Canadian Defence Policy and Global Security”, World Peace Forum, Vancouver, June 24.

“Canadian and Japanese Contributions to UN Peacekeeping: More than ‘Boots on the Ground’”, 5th Annual Canada-Japan Symposium on Peace and Security Cooperation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, September 9.

“Woodrow Wilson Sesquicentennial: America in Her Depths”, Varna, Bulgaria, December 28.



“Canada: The Prolific Peacekeeper”, Rotary Club of Toronto – Don Valley, Toronto, January 20.

“International Organizations”, National Security Studies Course (NSSC), Canadian Forces College (CFC), Toronto, January 31.

“Canadian Peacekeeping”, interview with Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), quotation in EIU Foreign Report, February 9.

“Non-Governmental Organizations”, NSSC/CFC, Toronto, January 31.

“Bridging the Divides: Addressing Key Challenges to the NPT”, Roundtable contributor, Ottawa, February 21.

“Exercise Strategic Bridge”, Subject Matter Expert and Panelist, NSSC/CFC, February 23-25.

“International Security and the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defence Program”, Osgoode Hall Law School, Toronto, February 26.

“The Influence of Ethics and Religion on the Actions of UN Secretary-General U Thant”, Annual Conference of the International Studies Association (ISA), Honolulu, Hawaii, March 1-5.

“The Evolution of Peace Support Operations”, Canadian Land Forces Command and Staff Course, March 7.

“Constraints on Military Power”, NSSC/CFC, Toronto, March 22.

“Canadian Peacekeeping: Proud Tradition, Strong Future?”, Rotary Club of Toronto – Forest Hill, March 31.

“The Legal Dimensions of Strategic Operations”, Subject Matter Expert, NSSC/CFC, Toronto, April 6.

“Global Threats, Challenges and Opportunities”, Command and Staff Course (CSC), CFC, April 27.

“Canada in the World”, CSC seminar chair, CFC, Toronto, April 28.

“Canada and the United Nations”, Permanent Mission of Canada to the UN, New York, May 10.

“Modern Peace Support Operations (PSOs)”, CSC/CFC, Toronto, May 24.

“The Achievements of UN Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar”, Paris, May 26.

“The Evolution of Peace Support Operations”, Canadian Land Forces Command and Staff Course (CLFCSC), Kingston, June 13.

“U Thant: Buddhism in Action”, Annual Conference of the Academic Council on the UN System (ACUNS), Ottawa, June 17.

“Mexican Participation in Peacekeeping Operations”, parliamentary seminar at the Mexican Congress, Mexico City, July 12. (televised)

“‘The War on Terrorism’: A Dangerous Self-fulfilling Prophesy; The Importance of Avoiding the Bandwagon”, 54th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, Hiroshima, Japan, July 24.

“The Honorable Douglas Roche: An Appreciation”, Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Pugwash Group, University of Toronto, September 30.

“Global Threats, Challenges and Opportunities”, CSC, CFC, Toronto, October 14.

“Exercise Strategic World”, chair, subject matter expert (SME) and panellist, CSC, CFC, Toronto, October 17-19.

“Intelligence, Peace Support and the United Nations”, Strategic Intelligence Analysts Course, Canadian Forces School of Military Intelligence (CFSMI), Kingston, October 25.

“Decennary Report on UN-NGO Activities”, Science for Peace Board of Directors, OISE, Toronto, November 4.

“The Evolution of Peace Support Operations”, Advanced Military Studies Course, CFC, Toronto, November 22.

“The Evolution of Peace Support Operations”, Canadian Land Forces Command and Staff Course (CLFCSC), Kingston, November 28.

“International Organizations: The United Nations” (following Canadian Ambassador to the UN, Alan Rock), CSC, December 1.

“The Evolution of Peace Support”, Ministry of Defence (MINDEF) Headquarters, Singapore, December 9.



“The United Nations Assistance Mission in Rwanda: What Reason Failure?”, War Studies course WS508, presentation at CFC, Toronto, broadcast through Video Teleconference (VTC), January 20.

“Strengthening the United Nations”, Global Convention on Peace and Non-Violence, Gandhi Smriti, New Delhi, India, January 31.

“International Organizations”, National Security Studies Course (NSSC), Canadian Forces College (CFC), Toronto, February 3.

“Non-Governmental Organizations”, NSSC, CFC, Toronto, February 3.

“Weapons of Mass Destruction: Verification and Compliance”, in plenary session of the “Government Consultations on Issues Relating to International Security,” Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), Toronto, February 24.

“National Missile Defence (NMD): Risks of Missile Attack and Catastrophic Accidents”, McMaster Student Pugwash, McMaster University, Hamilton, March 13.

“Peacekeeping in Theory and Practice: An Ivory Tower Academic Works in East Timor”, guest lecture, POL310Y (Managing International Military Conflict), University of Toronto, March 15.

“Intelligence and Peacekeeping: Strange Bedfellows”, War Studies course WS508, presentation at CFC, Toronto and broadcast through Video Teleconference (VTC), March 16.

“Constraints on Military Power”, NSSC, CFC, Toronto, March 23.

“Technology in Peacekeeping”, WS508, VTC, Toronto, March 30.

“Canada and the United Nations”, Permanent Mission of Canada to the UN, New York, May.

“Legal Dimensions of Strategic Operations”, NSSC seminar: academic chair, April 2.

“Impact of Research and Development on Warfare”, NSSC seminar: academic adviser, April 6.

“Modern Peace Support Operations”, Command and Staff Course (CSC) lecture, CFC, Toronto, May 25.

“Introduction to Peace Operations”, “The UN System”, “Early Warning”, “Experiences of an Electoral Officer in East Timor”, “Transitional Authorities”, “Jobs and Careers in the Field”, Lectures at the Peace Operations Summer Institute (POSI), Pearson Peacekeeping Centre (PPC), NS, May 31- June 10.

“Canada in the World”, CSC seminar (syndicate chair and plenary speaker), June 10-11.

“The United Nations as a Spiritual Institution?”, presentation at the Parliament of the World’s Religions, Barcelona, Spain, July 9.

Analysis of the Prime Minister’s Speech to the UN General Assembly, live interviews with the CBC NewsWorld program “Your Call” and taped interview for CBC program “The National”, CBC National Broadcast Centre, Toronto, 22 September 2003.

“The Evolution of International Organization: The UN at 59!”, talk to the Toronto-Eglington Rotary Club, October 27.

“What to Remember on Remembrance Day?”, breakfast lecture, Armoured Heights Presbyterian Church, November 11.

“Remembrance Day Service: Remember What?”, sermon, Armoured Heights Presbyterian Church, November 14.

“Peace Support Operations: An Evolving Practice”, AMSC lecture, November 17.

“The United Nations”, guest lecture in POL 343 (Politics of Global Governance), University of Toronto, November 25.

“Let My Country Awake: the Nationalist/Internationalist Poem of Rabindranath Tagore”, Xiamen, China, December 13.



“Canada, Japan and UN Peacekeeping”, “Intelligence Support for UN Peacekeeping”, “Technology and Engineering for Peacekeeping”, National Institute for Defence Studies (formerly National Defense College), Tokyo, March 27.

“Canada and the Weaponization of Space”, Pugwash Seminar, University of Toronto, March 22.

“The Future of the United Nations,” Keynote speaker, St. Lawrence Forum, Toronto, May 26.

“Human Security: Four Debates”, Annual QCIR/RMC conference, RMC, Kingston, June 6.

“Human Security and UN Monitoring: The Emerging Global Watch”, Academic Council on the United Nations (ACUNS), Annual Conference, United Nations, New York, June 14.

“Armed Conflict and the Evolution of Peace Operations “, “Experience of an Electoral Officer in East Timor”, “Transitional Administration”, “Jobs and Careers in Peace Operations”, Peace Operations Summer Institute, Acadia University, NS, June 9, 17, 18 and 19.

“UN Monitoring for Human Security: The Evolving Global Watch”, 53rd Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, “Advancing Human Security: The Role of Technology and Politics”, Halifax, Nova Scotia, July 18.

“The Life of Sri Ramachandra”, New York City, August 25.

“Peacekeeping: Introduction and Definitional Maze”, War Studies course WS508, presentation at CFC, Toronto and broadcast through Video Teleconference (VTC), September 16.

“The Evolution of Peacekeeping: A Functional Model”, War Studies course WS508, presentation at RMC, Kingston and broadcast through Video Teleconference (VTC), Sept 23.

Master of Ceremonies, “Lifting Up the World Award to Minister of Foreign Affairs Bill Graham at the United Nations”, New York, September 24.

“Early Peacekeeping: The League of Nations”, War Studies course WS508, presentation at CFC, Toronto and broadcast through Video Teleconference (VTC), September 30.

“Strategic World Seminar (Debates)”, Subject Matter Expert, CFC, October.

“Canadian Foreign and Defence Policy”, Seminar moderator and plenary session panelist, Command and Staff Course, Canadian Forces College, October 20.

“The First Peacekeeping Force: UNEF (1956-67)”, War Studies course WS508, presentation at CFC, Toronto and broadcast through Video Teleconference (VTC), November 18. (pdf of PPT)

“The UN’s First Multidimensional Mission: ONUC (1960-64)”, War Studies course WS508, presentation at CFC, Toronto and broadcast through Video Teleconference (VTC), November 25.

“US Foreign and Defence Policy”, Seminar moderator, Command and Staff Course, Canadian Forces College, November 26.

“The Politics of Globalization: Personal Views and Experiences”, POL343 (The Politics of Global Governance), University of Toronto, Toronto, November 27.

“Organizational Frameworks for Peacekeeping Intelligence at UN Headquarters”, Peacekeeping Intelligence: New Players, Extended Boundaries”, Crowne Plaza Hotel, Ottawa, December 4.

“The Emerging Global Watch: The UN as Big Brother, Big Helper or a Big Bother? (Divergent Indian, Canadian, and American views)”, Indian Pugwash Society, New Delhi, India, December 13.



” ‘Victory over the Genocidal Khmer Rouge Regime’: the 32nd Anniversary”, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, January 7, 2002.

“The Model Nuclear Weapons Convention: Possible Verification Bodies”, Roundtable, DFAIT, Ottawa, January 9.

“The Model Nuclear Weapons Convention: Domestic Implementation and Societal Verification”, Roundtable, DFAIT, Ottawa, January 10.

“Compliance with Disarmament Treaties: What to do about the Hard Cases?” Wilton Park conference, Sussex, UK, February 23.

“Global Watch: the UN as Big Brother or Big Helper?”, Department of Politics and Economics, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, March 8.

“The Evolving UN Role in Small Arms Management”, Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, Agra, India, March 14.

“Globalization, Technology and Inequities: Rapporteur’s Report (Working Group 3)”, Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, Agra, India, March 16.

“Canadian Internationalism: Origins and Evolution”, guest lecture, course POE106, “Canadian Civics and Society”, RMC, March 26. (pdf of PPT)

“The Wilsonian Tradition and American Attitudes Towards International Organizations”, Centre for International Relations, Queen’s University, Kingston, March 27.

“Global Watch: UN Monitoring for International Peace and Human Security”, Director’s Workshop, Norman Patterson School of Internat. Affairs, Carleton University, April 5.

“Indicators for Predicting Armed Conflict”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, May 1.

Human Security: An Overview”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, May 1.

Early Warning of Conflict and the Development of Strategic Options”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, May 2.

“East Timor: Observations of an Electoral Officer”, Conference on East Timor, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Montreal, May 16.

“Global Watch: The Evolution of International Organization”, Conference on the Evolution of World Order, Ryerson University, Toronto, May 31.

“An Unprecedented Experiment: Security Sector Reform in Bosnia”, presented to the conference “Give Peace a Chance? Implications of a Decade of Western Conflict Management in Bosnia (1992-2002)”, Royal Military College, Kingston, June 13.

“Conflict Management: The Role of Technology”, Canadian Pugwash Group Workshop, “Technology and Human Security”, Pugwash, NS, July 19.

“Arms Races or Arms Control in Outer Space?”, 52nd Pugwash Conferences, La Jolla, California, August 12.

“ UN Weapons Inspection in Iraq”, Iraq Forum, Centre for Security and Defence Studies, Carleton University, Ottawa, November 18.



“Science and Spirituality–East and West”, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia, January 29.

“Exercise Strategic Bridge 2000-2015”, panelist, National Strategic Studies Course, Canadian Forces College, Toronto, March 6-7.

“Early Warning: Step One for Conflict Prevention”, McGill Student Pugwash Conference, McGill University, Montreal, March 10.

“East Timor: Experiences and Reflections of a UN Electoral Officer”, Queen’s Centre for International Relations, Queen’s University, Kingston, March 14.

“Bill Epstein at the United Nations: Sixty-Five Years of Energetic Service (A Memorial Tribute)”, Canadian Pugwash Group, Toronto, March 16.

“Peacekeeping: A Proud Canadian Tradition”, Virginia Military Institute (VMI), Lexington, Virginia, March 20.

“East Timor: Traumatic Birth of a New Nation”, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Virginia, March 20.

“L’Internationalism Canadien: Contributions à la paix internationale et à la sécurité humaine”, Collège Militaire Royal du Canada, April 2.

“Bill Epstein: Words of Fond Remembrance”, UN Church Centre, New York, 10.

“Early Warning and the Development of Strategic Options”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, April 25.

“Canada as a Peace-Nation”, official ceremony to unveil a plaque for the Canadian Peace-Nation dedication, Human Rights Monument, Ottawa, May 8.

“Global Watch: UN Monitoring for International Peace and Human Security”, Canadian Peace Research and Education Association (CPREA) Annual meeting, Kingston, May 30.

“The Evolution of Peacekeeping”, International Peacekeeping Summer Institute (IPSI), Acadia University, Nova Scotia, June 11.

“Faculty Panel: The Brahimi Report” (panelist), IPSI, June 11.

“Human Security”, IPSI, June 12.

“Slide Presentation: An Electoral Officer in East Timor, IPSI, June 12.

“Civil-Military Relations in Peacekeeping” (co-presented with Dr. Ken Eyre), IPSI, June 13.

“The Politics of Early Warning”, IPSI, June 13.

“Information and Intelligence-Gathering in Peacekeeping ”, IPSI, June 13.

“Careers in Peacekeeping”, IPSI, June 14.

“International Criminal Tribunals”, IPSI, June 18.

“The future of Peacekeeping: the Brahimi Report recommendations revisited”, IPSI, June 21.

“Global Watch: UN Monitoring for International Peace and Human Security”, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, Summer Symposium on Human Security, Ottawa, July 24.

“Human Security: Freedom from Fear in a Dangerous World”, in “C-99: The Advanced Course”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, September 12.

“Early Warning and the Development of Strategic Options”, in “C-99: The Advanced Course”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, September 13.

“Live, Move and Work: Technology and Engineering in Modern Peacekeeping” (Course C-06), lectures on “Monitoring and Positioning Technologies”, “Communications and Information Technologies”, “Technology and Engineering Organizations,” “Technology Selection Criteria,” Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Nova Scotia, September 17-28.

Human Security and Science and Technology”, Organized by the Chair of the Human Security Network (Gov. of Chile), held at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Vienna, October 10.

“Global Watch: UN Monitoring for Peace and Human Security”, Department of Geography, Queen’s University, Kingston, October 26.

“The Experience of Pearl Harbour on the 60th Anniversary”, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 9 December 2001.

“Alternatives to War with Iraq”, Experts’ Panel, Carleton University, Ottawa, December 11, see action.web.ca/home/cpcc/attach/Final%20report.htm.



“Perspective on East Timor: The Efforts of the United Nations”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Nova Scotia, January 12.

The Future of Warfare: Small Arms are the Big Problem”, opening address, conference on “The Future of International Humanitarian Law and the New Millennium”, Canadian Red Cross and the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, February 10.

“Peacebuilding in East Timor”, Panelist, Fourth Annual Peacebuilding Consultations, DFAIT, Ottawa, February 29.

“War and Peace in the 21st Century: The Work of the United Nations”, Faculty Fellows program, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, March 8.

“East Timor: Traumatic Birth of a New Nation”, Camel Breeders Club, Cornell University, Ithaca, April 27.

“Introduction to Conflict Monitoring”, “Early Warning of Conflict Escalation”, “The Evolution of UN Monitoring and Verification”, “Legal, Political and Technical Aspects of Monitoring and Verification”, “Monitoring Elections in East Timor”, “Information and Intelligence”, “Case Study: The Congo Operation, 1960-64”, “Evidence-Gathering for International Criminal Tribunals”, presentations to the programme on Conflict Management and Peace Monitoring, Guatemalan Institute for Peace and Development (presented at the Guatemalan Min. of Foreign Affairs), Guatemala City, May 3-4.

“Civil-Military Cooperation in East Timor 1999: Observations of an Electoral Officer”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Nova Scotia, Course C-01, June 7.

“Refugees and IDPs in East Timor: Observations of an Electoral Officer”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Nova Scotia, Course C-04, June 8.

“Environmental Causes of Conflict”, Pugwash Conference on World Affairs, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK, August 4.

“The Contribution of Eastern Spirituality to World Peace and International Organization”, XXXVIth International Congress of Asian and North African Studies, Montreal, September 1, 2000.

“Improving Civil-Military Cooperation (CIMIC)” and “CIMIC in East Timor 1999”, Course C-01, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Nova Scotia, September 19.

“Early Warning of Armed Conflict”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Nova Scotia, Course C-99 (“The Advanced Course”), September 19.

“Could the Genocide in Rwanda have been Predicted and Prevented?”, course POE416, Contemporary Canadian External Relations and Defence Policy, Royal Military College, Nov. 9.

“Live, Move and Work: Technology and Engineering in Modern Peacekeeping”, lectures on “Monitoring Technologies”, “Positioning Technologies”, “Communications and Information Technology”, “Protection Technology”, “Technology and Engineering Organizations,” “Technology Selection Criteria,” lectures presented as part of course C-06 (“Live, Move and Work”), Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Nova Scotia, November 13-24.



“Blue Sensors: Cooperative Monitoring Technology in UN Peacekeeping”, Cooperative Monitoring Centre, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, March 3.

“Voter Education” prior to the UN-sponsored Popular Consultation in East Timor, UNAMET Registration Centres in Ogues (July 6), Lakonak (August), Ave Maria Church/Suai (August), East Timor.

Press Conference, panel on East Timor, National Press Club, Ottawa, September. Broadcast by CPAC; excerpts from speech broadcast on CBC radio.

“Indonesia Options”, CBC Interview, This Morning with Dick Gordon, September 10, see www.cbc.ca/insite/THIS_MORNING_TORONTO/1999/9/10.html .

“Homage to East Timor”, sponsored by the East Timor Alert Network, University of Ottawa, October 9 (broadcast on CPAC).

“East Timor: Benefit for the UNHCR”, United Nations Association (UNA) – National Capital Region, Arts Centre, Ottawa, October 24.

“Learning from Disaster: The Lessons of East Timor and Rwanda”, talk to the Group of 78, National Press Club, Ottawa, October 26.

“Experiences of a UN Electoral Officer in East Timor … Or How I spent my Summer Vacation,” International Living Centre, Cornell University, October 28.

“Tools of the Trade: Technologies in Modern Peacekeeping”, a dozen lectures as part of course C-06 (“Live, Move and Work” for military officers from 14 nations), Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Nova Scotia, November 8-19.

“UN Electoral Operations: East Timor Case Study 1999”, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, November 16. (pdf of PPT)

“East Timor: Traumatic Birth of a New Nation”, State University of New York (SUNY) at Cortland, Cortland, New York, November 30.

“The United Nations in the Twenty-First Century: Technology to Help Peace?”, Catholic Pontifical University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, December 15.



“Technology for Peacekeeping and Arms Control”, “Common Security” course, University of Toronto, February 24.

“Compliance with Disarmament Provisions: Iraq, UNSCOM and International law”, Peace and Conflict Studies Course, McMaster University, March 2.

“Technology for UN Peacekeeping”, Cooperative Monitoring Centre, Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 18.

“Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq: A Threat Assessment”, Panelist, University of Toronto, March 19.

“Mikhail Gorbachev: Selections from his Memoirs” (Slide presentation), New York, April 15.

“The Cloak and the Blue Beret I: Intelligence in Modern Peacekeeping Operations”, Canadian Association for Security and Intelligence Studies (CASIS), Ottawa, May 31.

“The Cloak and the Blue Beret II: Could Secret Intelligence Have Prevented the Rwandan Genocide?”, Canadian Peace Research and Education Association (CPREA) Annual Conference, Ottawa, June 2.

“Nuclear Testing in South Asia”, panelist (with slide presentation) in Alumni Reunion Current Events Roundtable “War and Peace Today,” Cornell University, June 5.

“The Cloak and the Blue Beret: Intelligence and UN Peacekeeping Operations”, Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS), Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, Nova Scotia, June 19.

“Monitoring Technologies for UN Peacekeeping Operations”, Summer Symposium, Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), Boston, July 14-21.

Introduction of David Malone, Director-General in the Canadian Foreign Ministry (before his talk on “The Security Council and the Criminal Court”), Peace Studies Program lecture on Contemporary International Security Issues, August 17.

“Predicting the Unpredictable: UN Early Warning of Conflict in Africa,” Institute for African Development and the Peace Studies Program, Cornell University, September 3.

“Preventing the Bloodbath: UN intervention and the Genocide in Rwanda”, Brainstorms Series, Faculty-Fellows Program, Cornell University, September 15.

“Cooperative Monitoring and the Evolution of Peacekeeping”, Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, Querataro, Mexico, October 1.

“Intro to the United Nations”, talk to the International Living Centre, Cornell Univ., October 29.

“Cooperative Monitoring Technologies for Disarmament and Peacekeeping”, UN Dept. for Disarmament Affairs (staff meeting), Nov. 3.

“Live, Move and Work: Technology and Engineering in Modern Peacekeeping” (2 wk course taught by D. Harries and W. Dorn), Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, N.S., November 16-27.



“Science and Technology for Peacekeeping and Arms Control,” Undergraduate seminar course (Prof. F. Griffiths), Univ. of Toronto, January 14.

“Early and Late Warning of Acute Conflict by the UN Secretary-General,” Conference on “Synergies in Early Warning,” York University, March 17.

“Space-based Technologies to Support the United Nations,” Panel session on “The Politics of Planetary Surveillance,” International Studies Association, Toronto, March 20.

“Working for Peace”, SGI Canada, visiting lecture, Toronto, March 23.

“The Emerging Global Watch: Monitoring and Verification by International Organizations,” Peace Studies Program, Cornell University, May 19.

“Technology for UN Peace-keeping,” Union of Concerned Scientists, Summer Symposium on Science and World Affairs, Cornell University, August 1.

“Intelligence in UN Peace-keeping,” Forcas Unidas (Peace-keeping Training Exercise), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 21.

“Working in Peace and Conflict” and “Carrots, Sticks and Bombs”, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, October 16.

“Carrots, Sticks and Bombs: Ensuring Compliance with Disarmament Treaties”, Carleton University, Ottawa, October 21.

“UN Information-Gathering for Peace and Security: What Goes In Doesn’t Necessarily Come Out”, Faculty of Information Studies, (Guest lecture in course “International Organizations: Their Documents and Publications”), Univ. of Toronto, Nov. 20.

“Carrots, Sticks and Bombs: Ensuring Compliance with Disarmament Treaties”, University of Ottawa, (Guest lecture in French law course “Introduction to International Law”), Ottawa, November 24. (en français)

“Technology for Peace-keeping,” Defence Research Establishment—Valcartier (DREV), Valcartier, Quebec, November 26.



“Peace, International Order and the United Nations”, Grade 8 Home Class, St. Mary’s High School, Mississauga, February 14.

“UN Peace Operations: The Rapid Reaction Force proposal”, Sixth Fletcher Roundtable on a New World Order, March 29.

“Technologies for Peace-keeping and their Use by the United Nations,” Workshop on “Technology for Peace: Enhancing the Effectiveness of Multilateral Interventions” sponsored by the Program in Arms Control, Disarmament and International Security of the University of Illinois at Urbana, Washington, May 18.

“Technologies for UN Peace-keeping,” Canadian Peace Research and Education Association (CPREA) session at the Canadian Learneds conference, Brock University, June 1.

“Planetary Surveillance and the United Nations,” Workshop on “The Politics of Planetary Surveillance”, Institute of International Relations, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, July 13.

“The Statue of Liberty: America’s Peace Monument,” SCC Celebrations, August 30, 1996.

“Introduction of Stephen Lewis (Deputy Executive Director of UNICEF)”, John and Lois Dove Memorial Lecture, George Ignatieff Theatre, Toronto, Sept. 26.

“Technologies for Peace and Their Use by the United Nations,” Second Workshop sponsored by the Program in Arms Control, Disarmament and International Security (ACDIS) of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaigne, October 4. (to be published as chapter in book)

“The United Nations and Global Power”, VANA (Veterans Against Nuclear Arms) lecture, Toronto, October 22.

“The United Nations of the Next generation,” A discussion with the Student UN Club, Soka University, Tokyo, December 20.

“Reform of the United Nations: Some Predictions for the Next Five, Twenty-Five and Fifty Years,” Toda Institute for Global Peace and Policy Research, Tokyo, December 21.



“The League of Nations, the United Nations … What Next? Reforming the UN System”, Opening talk of the UN Lecture Series, Canadian Institute of International Affairs. (The other speaker was Angus (Ron) Robertson, former Director of the UN Affairs Section at the Canadian Dept. of Foreign Affairs and International Trade), January 10.

“Compliance Provisions in Disarmament Treaties: An Overview”, opening presentation at a workshop on Compliance Systems for Disarmament Treaties, Trinity College, March 3.

“Compliance Provisions in the Chemical Weapons Convention: A Summary”, Workshop on Compliance Systems for Disarmament Treaties, Trinity College, March 3.

“Intelligence and Peace-Keeping: The UN Operation in the Congo 1960-64”, The United Nations at Fifty Conference, Hofstra University, Long Island, March 17.

“Intelligence and the United Nations: Knowledge is Power”, International Relations Speakers Series, University of Toronto, March 28.

“Canadian Activities in Chemical and Biological Defence”, testimony to the Biological and Chemical Defence Review Committee (BCDRC) of the Department of National Defence (DND), Toronto, May 29.

“Transforming the United Nations”, speech to the conference “Countdown 2000: Shaping the Global Age”, June 3.

“Securing Compliance with Disarmament Agreements: The Carrots and Sticks Used by the UN”, Eighth Annual Meeting of the Academic Council on the UN System, New York, June 20 (co-presented with A. Fulton).

“Happy 50th Anniversary, United Nations!”, luncheon speech to the Rotary Club (Eglington), June 28.

“Sovereignty, Security and UN Fact-Finding”, 1995 ACUNS/ASIL Summer Workshop, The Hague, July 16-28.



“Woodrow Wilson and the League of Nations: Vision, Reality and Irony”, opening speech at the Symposium on the 75 Anniversary of the League of Nations, Women’s National Democratic Club, Washington D.C., March 5.

“Ion Conduction in Lipid Membranes”, Physical Chemistry Seminar, Dept. of Chemistry, University of Toronto, May 5.

“Canadian Activities in Chemical and Biological Defence”, testimony to the Biological and Chemical Defence Review Committee (BCDRC) of the Department of National Defence (DND), Toronto, May 30.

“The Divine as Father: The Hindu Trinity”, SCC Celebrations, Toronto, c. August 14. (repeated in Ottawa on January 1, 1995, and Toronto on February 19, 1995.)



“Keeping Watch for Peace: Fact-finding by the UN Secretary-General”, presentation at the Workshop on Preventive Crisis Management, organized by the Austrian Foreign Ministry, Vienna, January.

“The Chemical Weapons Convention: National and International Implementation”, presentation to the Arms Control and Disarmament Committee of the SPD, Deutsches Bundestag, Bonn, February 2.

“The Chemical Weapons Convention”, introductory presentation at the Science for Peace Workshop on Recent Developments in Arms Control, Ryerson Polytechnical University, May 29. (Also introduction of Canadian Disarmament Ambassador Peggy Mason in the afternoon session).

“Canadian Activities in Chemical and Biological Defence”, testimony to the Biological and Chemical Defence Review Committee (BCDRC), Toronto, May 31.

“Fact-finding by the UN Secretary-General”, Third Workshop on Verification of Arms Reduction, Geneva International Peace Research Institute, Geneva, August 25. [To be published in the workshop proceedings (VU University Press, Amsterdam.)]



“The United Nations and Canada: Ideas for Making Progress”, January 9, World Federalists of Canada-Toronto Branch, talk and slide presentation.

“Non-Proliferation, Arms Transfers and the United Nations”, talk to the North American Model United Nations (First Committee), February.

“The Multilateral Arms Control Verification Project”, presentation to the Executive Committee of Parliamentarians for Global Action, July 10.

“Peace keeping Satellites”, National Meeting on Nuclear Power and Weapons in Space, City Council Chambers, Washington, D.C., July 18.

“Keeping Watch for Peace: Fact-finding by the UN Secretary-General”, paper presented at the IFAC Conference on Supplemental Ways of Increasing International Security, Toronto.

“Gorbachev: The Master Key”, presentation to SCC Celebrations, Aug. 27.

“Arms Control After the End of the Cold War”, talks with the Australian National Group of Parliamentarians for Global Action, Canberra, Australia, September 10. (Upon invitation from Senator Margaret Reynolds.)

“A Growth Area for the United Nations: Fact-Finding”, Written testimony provided to members of the Canadian Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade, November 5.



“Institutionalizing Arms Control Verification”, presentation to the Executive Committee of the Academic Council on the United Nations System (ACUNS), Trinity College, Toronto, January 12.

“Civilizing Science”, Ideas, CBC Radio (sections of an interview were used in the feature program), broadcast on January 31.

“Methods for Peacekeeping and Arms Control”, part of Panel Discussion on “The Aftermath of the Gulf War”, McMaster University, March 20.

“Canadian Programs in Chemical and Biological Defence”, oral and written presentation to the Biological and Chemical Defence Review Committee (BCDRC) of the Department of National Defence (DND), Toronto, May 2.

“Reviewing the Biological Weapons Convention”, opening address to the Workshop on the Biological Weapons Convention, Ryerson Polytechnical Institute, Toronto, June 19.

“Technology for Arms Control Verification in the 1990s”, opening address to the Workshop of the same title, Ryerson Polytechnical Institute, Toronto, June 20.

“Technology for Peace”, Young Scientists of Canada symposium, University of Toronto, July 18.

“The Achievements of UN Secretary-General U Thant”, presentation to SCC Celebrations, August.

“Compliance Systems for Arms Control Treaties”, panel discussion, organized by Science for Peace and the Markland Group, Trinity College, October 1.

“Brief to the Citizens Inquiry into Peace and Security”, Toronto hearings, October 8.

“Technology for Peace keeping and Arms Control”, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (Peterborough Chapter), Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, October 10.

“Keeping Watch for Peace: The UN Secretary General’s Capability for Fact Finding”, November 28. World Federalists of Canada — Toronto Branch, talk and slide presentation.



“Science and Spirituality”, slide presentation, SCC Celebrations, New York City, April.

“Open Skies, Open Space and the United Nations”, speech made at the invitation of the Ottawa Disarmament Coalition, Ottawa Public Library April 4. (See Musson, Harry, “Dorn’s Morale Booster”, Ottawa Peace Calendar, May 1990, p. 3 and “Open Skies: a Modest Proposal”, Ottawa Disarmament Coalition Review, Spring 1990).

“The Proposal for a U.N. Verification Agency”, presentation to delegates and senior U.N. Secretariat officials, sponsored by the Mission of Nepal to the United Nations, UN Headquarters, April 6.

“Steps for the U.N. General Assembly to establish a U.N. Verification Agency”, principal speech at a luncheon in honour of the Chairman of the U.N. Disarmament Commission (Ambassador Nana Sutresna), sponsored by the Center for War/Peace Studies, New York, May 10.

“The Broader Context of Non-Proliferation and Disarmament: A U.N. Verification Role”, Bellerive Colloquium, June 20 21, Geneva, Switzerland.

“Woodrow Wilson: Statesman of Vision”, slide presentation, SCC Celebrations, New York City, September 2.

“Technologies for Peace keeping and Arms Control Verification”, The Ralph Bunche Institute on the United Nations, City University of New York, Seminar Series, October 24.

“The U.N. Role in Verification”, Forum sponsored by the NGO Committee on Disarmament, United Nations, New York, October 25.



“Canada: Leader in Verification at the United Nations?”, Forum on Peace and Justice, University College, University of Toronto (with Douglas Scott, Q.C.), February 28.

“Strengthening International Verification and Compliance”, lectures at the Workshop on the Control of Chemical and Biological Weapons, Ryerson Polytechnical Institute and the University of Toronto, April 5 & 6.

“John Fitzgerald Kennedy”, slide presentation, SCC Celebrations, New York City, April.

“Biological Weapons Convention: Strengthening International Verification and Compliance”, panelist in event organized by Nurses for Social Responsibility (Ottawa Chapter), Ottawa, April 28.

“Chemical Weapons Disarmament”, Guest lecture, St. Michael’s College School, Toronto, May 9.

“Satellite Surveillance for Verification and Crisis Monitoring”, Dag Hammarskjöld Library Auditorium, UN Headquarters, Forum on “The UN Role in Disarmament and International Security” sponsored by the NGO Committee on Disarmament (programme also included presentations by U.N. Ambassadors), May 12.

“The Peace Run in the Arctic and the Midnight Sun Marathon”, slide presentation, SCC Celebrations, New York City, August.

“An International Arctic Monitoring Agency”, speech to plenary meeting, and Resource Person in Workshop 6: “L’Arctique, Zone de Paix; Role des Élus et des Groupes Sociaux”, Nordic Peace Conference, Montreal, September 15 17 (bilingual presentation).

“The United Nations and Canada: Past and Future Roles in Preserving International Peace and Security”, dinner speech to the Model UN at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, October 14.



“The United Nations, Disarmament and Development”, Carleton University, Ottawa, Guest Lecture, Course: “The Arms Race”, March 8.

“Peacekeeping Satellites – A Case for International Surveillance and Verification”, Science for Peace – Ottawa Chapter, University of Ottawa, March 8.

“Making Peace: An Evening of Discussion on Peace Research Activities with Walter Dorn and Alex Michalos”, South Western Regional Association of Science for Peace, Guelph, May 24.

“International Monitoring and Verification”, Dalhousie University, Defence Research and Education Centre, Conference on “Peacemaking and Peacekeeping: Canada and the United Nations – Looking to the 21st Century”, Halifax, June 6.

“Statement from the Peace Research Institute Dundas (PRID) to the Third United Nations Special Session on Disarmament”, Oral Presentation, New York, June 9. (Verbatim Record of speech is contained in U.N. document A/S 15/AC.1/PV.6, p. 56 59.)

“Statement from Science for Peace to the Third UN Special Session on Disarmament”, Co-author of written submission and oral statement. (Oral statement was presented by Prof. Derek Paul, June.)

“The United Nations and Peace keeping Satellites”, guest lecture in course “Search for World Peace”, York University, October 19.



“The United Nations”, slide presentation, SCC Celebrations, New York City, April 12.

“Canada and International Surveillance”, Workshop on Satellite and Airborne Surveillance, University of Toronto, July 7.

“Canada: A Picture Portrait”, slide presentation, SCC Celebrations, New York City, August.

“UN Peace keeping, Confidence Building and Regional Conflicts”, Rapporteur for Working Group V, Group of 78 Annual Conference, Stoney Lake, September 25 27.

“The United Nations Present Activities and Future Prospects in Disarmament”, Scarborough College Student Pugwash, October 22.



“The United Nations, Disarmament and Non-Governmental Organizations”, Science for Peace Lecture, Toronto, May 21.

“The U.N., Disarmament and Non-Governmental Organizations”, York University Student Pugwash Symposium, Toronto, June 26.

“The United Nations, Disarmament and Non-Governmental Organizations”, Model United Nations, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Montreal, July 11.



“Organizing for an International Satellite Monitoring Agency”, panelist in a seminar session at conference “Harmony for a Small Planet”, organized by the World Federalists of Canada, Toronto, May 19.


 Complete list to 2018 (pdf).